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Dialling Down Hatred: An Online Pilot Project to Test Counter-Narrative Effectiveness Among Far-Right Sympathetic Audiences in the UK

William Allchorn
p. 157-190

Résumé

Over the past eight years, traditionalist communitarian versus more liberal cosmopolitan value divides have opened and caused considerable polarization in the UK. Cleaving to Pro-Leave and Pro-Remain positions on the EU referendum question (and though posited to have waned slightly now Brexit is settled), this new identity politics has had the lasting effect of emboldening and mainstreaming radical right-wing tenets (namely, anti-migrant, anti-Islam and anti-multicultural) that were once fringe. Despite this renewed challenge and imperative from far-right extremist organizations and their concomitant attempts at inserting their viewpoints into the UK political mainstream, there is a dearth of empirical data on what works and what does not to alleviate this divide. Indeed, most evaluations on this topic tend to privilege either an ideologically agnostic approach (i.e. treating specific extremisms as functionally equivalent or co-equal), or one specifically tailored to Islamist extremism. Moreover, approaches tend to privilege individuals who have already moved a fair way down the conveyor belt of extremism, showing either commitment to a specific extremist ideology or group of organized extremist actors. This article aims to provide a useful counterpoint to these prevailing tendencies. Taking the UK as a case study, it lays out how an iterative, experimental research methodology – mixing focus groups and surveys - can be used to test counter-messaging content and, most importantly, evaluate impactful attitudinal change among far-right sympathetic audiences. It is based on over 12 months of research among far-right sympathetic users on Facebook – with an initial round of focus group testing in September 2020 followed by larger-scale online testing on the Facebook platform from February-September 2021, and involved a collaboration between CARR, ACS, M&C Saatchi, the Outsiders & Facebook, with over 36 focus group participants and a combined online experimental reach of over 1 million Facebook users.

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Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 1 Tuck, H. and Silverman, T., ‘The Counter-Narrative Handbook’, London: Institute for Strategic Dialo (...)
  • 2 Allchorn, W. ‘Technology and the Swarm: A Dialogic Turn in Online Far-Right Activism’, GNET Insight (...)
  • 3 Dearden, L., ‘Finsbury Park terror suspect Darren Osborne read messages from Tommy Robinson days be (...)
  • 4 Macklin, G., ‘The El Paso Terrorist Attack: The Chain Reaction of Global Right-Wing Terror’, CTC Se (...)

1Over the past decade, counter-narratives have often been sourced as an answer to extremist ideologies. Used mainly at the ‘upstream’ phase of radicalization towards violent extremism, the use of counter-narratives by governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and civil-society actors in order to “[demystify], deconstruct or delegitimise extremist narratives” has come to the fore as a key intervention within the Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism (P/CVE) profession.1 Such a communications-focused approach has become especially important as extremist organizations and actors have become more adept at using social media in order to radicalize and recruit non-aligned actors to their cause. Moreover, the internet and social media have supplanted traditional forms of media and face-to-face encounters in extremist efforts to spread messages of hatred using sophisticated and targeted propaganda techniques to recruit the right audience.2 The UK far-right is not an exception to this trend. In particular, and as seen through attacks in Finsbury Park in 2017 and Dover in late 2022,3 the use of manifestos, online meme culture and conspiracy theories can lead to powerful offline effects;4 the seemingly sporadic and ‘solo’ actor nature of the attacks masking a more toxic online community of religiously, ethnically and racially-motivated hatred.

  • 5 Duffy, B., Hewlett, K., McCrae, J., & Hall, J. ‘Divided Britain? Polarisation and Fragmentation Tre (...)
  • 6 Ford, R., & Goodwin, M. J. “Britain After Brexit: A Nation Divided”. Journal of Democracy 28, no. 1 (...)
  • 7 Davey, J., Birdwell, J. & Skellett, R., Counter-Conversations: A model for direct engagement with i (...)
  • 8 Briggs, R. & Feve, S., Review of Programs to Counter Narratives of Violent Extremism, London: Insti (...)
  • 9 Briggs, R. & Feve, S., Review of Programs to Counter Narratives of Violent Extremism, London: Insti (...)
  • 10 Here, ‘far-right sympathetic audiences’ are defined as individuals who have stridently hostile view (...)

2Over the past eight years, traditionalist communitarian versus more liberal cosmopolitan value divides have opened and caused considerable polarization in the UK.5 Cleaving to Pro-Leave and Pro-Remain positions on the EU referendum question (and though posited to have waned slightly now Brexit is settled), this new identity politics has had the lasting effect of emboldening and mainstreaming radical right-wing tenets (namely, anti-migrant, anti-Islam and anti-multicultural sentiments) that were once fringe.6 Despite this renewed challenge and imperative from far-right extremist organizations and their concomitant attempts at inserting their viewpoints into the UK political mainstream, there is a dearth of empirical data on what works and what does not in counter-narrative campaigns specific to the far right. Indeed, the majority of evaluations and report on this topic tend to privilege either an ideologically agnostic approach (i.e. treating specific extremisms as functionally equivalent or co-equal),7 or one specifically tailored to Islamist extremism.8 Moreover, both intervention approaches to counter-narrative campaigns tend to privilege individuals who have already moved a fair way down the conveyor belt of extremism, showing either commitment to a specific extremist ideology or group of organized extremist actors.9 This article aims to provide a useful counterpoint to these prevailing approaches. Taking the UK as a case study, it lays out how an iterative, experimental survey research methodology can be used to test counter-narrative content and, most importantly, ensure impactful attitudinal change among far-right sympathetic audiences.10

Dialling Back Hatred: Research Context, Objectives, Hypotheses and Methodology for Testing Far-Right Counter-Narrative Effectiveness

  • 11 Allchorn, W., ‘Radical Right Counter Narratives Expert Workshop Report’, Abu Dhabi, UAE: Hedayah, 2 (...)

3In July 2020, the Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right (CARR), Academic Consulting Services (ACS) and Hedayah completed research that identified key far-right narratives, including: anti-migrant, anti-Islam and anti-multiculturalism sentiments.11 The outcome of which was the development of a series of counter-narratives that could be used by counter-extremism and counter-terrorism practitioners in this space. The author (Associate Director at CARR at the time of research) sought to test these counter-narratives - both online and offline - with UK-based far-right sympathisers (see Research Objectives below). First, through research with Steven Lacey and The Outsiders, the second using the learnings from these findings to develop content for testing online through Facebook.

4The goal of the research was to dial down sympathy for far-right viewpoints (i.e. moving from scepticism to warm or lukewarm agreeable views towards migrants, multiculturalism and Islam) and ultimately their engagement with such forms of activism (online and offline). This was based on a theory of change whereby – through presenting far-right sympathetic audiences in the UK with counter-narratives targeted to their attitudinal (i.e. immigration, multiculturalism and Islam sceptic in their outlooks), demographic specificity (male and female white across several age ranges and occupational bands) and interests (e.g. celebrities, pastimes, sports interests (i.e. football, non-Politically Correct or subversive humour) - we’ll be able to dial down their sympathy for FR viewpoints (i.e. moving from scepticism to warm or lukewarm agreeable views towards migrants, diversity/multiculturalism and Islam) and ultimately their engagement with such forms of activism (online and offline). The strategic approach was to get individuals who sympathise with far-right narratives to reflect on and review their sympathies and in doing so reject them by engaging them with counter narrative content which breaks down the basis of beliefs.

5The research hypotheses for the study included an array of variables to see whether greater exposure, engagement, content delivery and tailored content type would lead to more effective attitudinal change among far-right sympathetic audiences. The first was that greater exposure to counter-narrative content will see reduction in sceptical viewpoints towards immigration, multiculturalism and Islam. The second was that greater engagement with counter-narrative content will see a more marked reduction in sceptical viewpoints towards immigration, multiculturalism and Islam. The third was that counter-narrative content that affirms belonging, togetherness and community will see the most positive reaction among the target audience. The fourth was that counter-narrative content that challenges views on immigration, Islam and multiculturalism will see the most negative reaction among the target audience. The fifth was that counter-narrative content where the messengers are from a mixture of backgrounds will see the most positive reaction among the target audience. The sixth was that counter-narrative content where the messengers are from an ethnic minority background will see the most negative reaction among the target audience. The seventh and final hypothesis was that video-based counter-narrative content will receive the most engagement versus meme-based counter-narrative content.

  • 12 See: Saltman, E., Kooti, F., and Vockery, K., ‘New Models for Deploying Counterspeech: Measuring Be (...)

6The methodology for this project was therefore informed by an iterative two-step process. The first phase of the project was to conduct ethnographic, focus group testing of far-right counter-narrative content with a representative subset of a far-right sympathetic audience to ascertain how they would react to different types of counter-narrative content. This involved the piloting of counter-narrative 6 focus groups of 5-6 people in each, conducted online and included both mixed and single gender groups of people from across the UK (i.e. the North, Midlands and South of England. The research team used a screener questionnaire to make sure that only individuals with highly sceptical views on immigration, Islam and multiculturalism were included in the study. The second phase of the project was to develop a new, more robust counter-narrative testing methodology that used a mixture of surveys and social media data in order to track both the attitudinal journeys of users and the performance of counter-narrative content in real time and at scale from sceptical to warm positions on Islam, migration and multiculturalism (see Figure 1 below). This involved exposing a select group of Facebook users – based on anonymized user profiles generated from the focus groups and entered into Facebook’s Ads Manager – to test a series of counter-narrative adverts at a larger cohort (c. 1000+ individuals) of far-right sympathetic online audiences based in the UK. The aim was that through exposure to a series of live adverts such would be the effect as to reduce levels of scepticism by at least 2-5%.12 All counter-narrative content was highly targeted to very specific set of news feeds and audiences to minimise exposure.

Findings: Survey & Facebook Ads Testing of Far-Right Counter-Narrative Content

i) Introduction

7After the initial focus group stage had concluded, it was apparent what counter-narrative messages, messengers and formats worked well with those identified at the tipping point of joining the far right in the UK. In addition to this, the Outsiders - in conjunction with M&C Saatchi - were able to divide and precisely map the different sections of the larger audience to whom the online beta tested material could be presented (see textbox in section below). New counter-narrative material and copy was developed to present to a newly refined set of target audiences and pre- and post-test surveys were devised in order to measure the extent of attitudinal shift among the online audience. Findings from the focus-group research were highly useful in the creation of final content for the online section of testing. Most importantly, it was found through the focus groups that messages of unity that foster a sense of common human values, togetherness and kindness worked best with the target audience. In particular, it was learnt that content with a rousing, emotive or ‘feelgood’ factor were preferred over more cerebral content. Presented below is the nature of the counter-narrative content and online testing methodology used, its success among far-right sympathetic audiences when using Facebook ads tool, and - most importantly - the findings of whether or not the project was successful in dialling down hatred amongst this larger, more representative section of far-right sympathetic individuals.

ii) Online-Tested Far-Right Counter-Narrative Content

8Based on what had performed well in the focus groups, the memes and video used were recast to convey positive aspects (pride, togetherness, kindness) of ethnic and religious diversity related to the themes of kindness, the NHS, the military, football, freedom of speech and other shared passions. These intentionally showed multiple messengers of different religious and racial backgrounds without one particular group being reified above the other and on the most part constituted alternative narrative content - showing how ethnic and religious diversity connected to the campaigns core theme that ‘Everybody Makes Britain Great’. Different combinations of in-meme text and advertising copy with different tones developed (short, long, celebratory and contemplative) in order to see which combinations cut through the most. Below is a copy of each version of content selected for online testing for each theme:

  • 13 All images created for the author by M&C Saatchi.

Table 1: Online Tested Far-Right Counter Narrative Content13

Advert Name

Creative

Copy

Kindness 1

A lot of us have experienced the kindness of strangers the past year, tell us your favourite moment? 🙌

Kindness 2

Kindness makes communities strong. Spread some positivity, share your experiences below 👇👇👇

Kindness 3

Mother Teresa once said: “I alone cannot change the world, but I can cast a stone across the waters to create many ripples.” How can the kindness of people from different backgrounds help build stronger communities? ❤️🤍💙

NHS 1

Diversity makes the NHS what it is, tell us a story about how they helped you 💙💙💙

NHS 2

What makes you proud of the people in our NHS? Share below 🏥🎉👩🏼‍⚕️👩🏻‍⚕️👩🏾‍⚕️👩🏿‍⚕️🎉🏥

NHS 3

Tell us your stories of the diverse staff that have treated you in our fantastic hospitals? ✊🏻✊🏼✊🏽✊🏾✊🏿

NHS 4

Say it with me NHYESS, what do you love about it? ❤️❤️❤️

NHS 5

Tell us about the best NHS worker you’ve ever experienced. 👏💙👏

NHS 6

Let's take a moment to celebrate the workers of the NHYESS. 👏👏👏👏

Military 1

They put their lives on the line, show them some love 👇❤️👇

Military 2

Committed to their core, show these loyal and brave soldiers some love 👊❤️

Military 3

Risking their lives to keep you safe, the army’s made up of people from every background, celebrate their commitment below ✊🏻✊🏼✊🏽✊🏾✊🏿

Military 4

They put their lives on the line, show them some love 👇❤️👇

Military 5

Committed to their core, show these loyal and brave soldiers some love 👊❤️

Military 6

Risking their lives to keep you safe, the army’s made up of people from every background, celebrate their commitment below ✊🏻✊🏼✊🏽✊🏾✊🏿

Football 1

When it comes to football it's a passion everyone from every background shares, let us know about your favorite story celebrating England winning 🏆🏆🏆

Football 2

England winning the football unites us like nothing else, bringing people from every background together to celebrate as one, tell us why you think that is 👇👇👇

Football 3

The nervous anticipation waiting for a penalty to be taken, screaming at the top of your lungs, hugging the stranger next to you (pre-covid) and singing three lions at the top of your voice. We all share passions that show us we are actually really similar. Tell us about your stories of unlikely friendships below. ✊🏻✊🏼✊🏽✊🏾✊🏿

Football 4

Some footballing moments become etched in our memory. These shared experiences link us together and show our common humanity. Tell about how you’ve felt whilst watching the “beautiful game”? 👇👇👇

Football 5

What experiences have made you change your mind about people of different backgrounds? 👇👇👇

Football 6

When it comes to football it's a passion everyone from every background shares, let us know about your favorite story celebrating England winning 🏆🏆🏆

Football 7

England winning the football unites us like nothing else, bringing people from every background together to celebrate as one, tell us why you think that is 👇👇👇

Football 8

The nervous anticipation waiting for a penalty to be taken, screaming at the top of your lungs, hugging the stranger next to you (pre-covid) and singing three lions at the top of your voice. We all share passions that show us we are actually really similar. Tell us about when your stories of unlikely friendships below. ✊🏻✊🏼✊🏽✊🏾✊🏿

Football 9

Some footballing moments become etched in our memory. These shared experiences link us together and show our common humanity. Tell about how you’ve felt whilst watching the “beautiful game”? 👇👇👇

Football 10

What experiences have made you change your mind about people of different backgrounds? 👇👇👇

Freedom of Speech 1

Everyone has the right to freedom of speech but it's not an excuse to be unkind, nasty and racist. How do we stop people being racist to the players of what is supposed to be the beautiful game? 🧐❓🧐

Freedom of Speech 2

Everyone has the right to freedom of speech but it's not an excuse to be unkind, nasty and racist. How do we stop people being racist to the players of what is supposed to be the beautiful game? 🧐❓🧐

Shared Passions

Boxing takes discipline and determination, with the skill and dedication of the boxing coach featured in the video being the key to a boxer's success. How boxing coaches like him help bring the community together and make them stronger? 💪🤝🥊

  • 14 See Braddock (2020) & Rees and Montasari (2023) for more on harnessing these effects.

9It was also decided that the way in which the materials would be presented to audiences was important. In the end, it was decided that the best approach (highlighted in Figure 1 below) would be to go from ‘softer’ themes (such as kindness, the NHS and Football) close to the audience's own value system to ‘harder’ themes (e.g. racism, freedom of speech and the problematic nature of prejudicial sentiments towards minorities) that made the audience reflect on ethnic and religious diversity in a way that they might not have encountered before. This relates to the social psychological concepts of psychological reactance (i.e. where anger and counter-arguing can arise from cognitive dissonance) and elaboration likelihood model (i.e. where affirmation of an existing part of an individual’s value system is used in order to help elaborate new ideas or concepts).14 All audience members also received a chance to respond to the pre-test survey – with the most responsive segments to the final Shared Passions video (showing a video of a UK-based Muslim Boxing coach who was helping out with their local community) being re-targeted with the post-test survey to save on ad credits and boost responses.

Figure 1: Flow Diagram of Online Far-Right Counter-Narrative Rollout

  • 15 Such a shift to 5 to 10 day intervals is also borne out by counter-speech research - with an intern (...)
  • 16 An exception was made here for the final post-test survey which went out for ten days and was targe (...)

10Facebook Ads were used in order to precisely target individuals within each subset of the total audience (see textbox below). Such subsets were elaborated from the initial ethnographic focus group research and were used to develop demographic and attitudinal descriptors that were then used to target counter-narrative content. Two and four day exposures were first experimented which was then dropped for longer three to six and then five to ten day exposures in order to ensure attitudinal shift and for the platform to learn how to optimize content for the audience in the best way possible.15 The decision for whether content appeared for a single or double period (i.e. five or ten days) was weighed against whether the subject was a priority interest for the recipient audience, such that ad credits were used efficiently and that the audience were exposed only to meaningful content tailored to them.16 Advertising campaigns with an Awareness objective for each theme (e.g. Kindness, NHS, Military, Football, Freedom of Speech and Shared Passions) were run in parallel with a complimentary campaign during the same time period with an Engagement objective, and ad credits were apportioned according to duration and the size of each audience. The reason for running parallel campaigns was to boost attention and engagement scores over the relatively short period content would be served to them, a lesson learnt over three iterations during the six-month period of online testing.

Online Audience Overview

The audiences’ profiles listed below were identified from the learnings of the focus groups:

  1. Working Class Warrior: Male and female, 18+, North of England and Midlands. Interests match working class, crime prevention, community issues, racial integration, social integration, Sun news, Daily Mail. Key campaign sub-themes identified for the audience included Kindness and the NHS. (Audience Size: 1,100,000)

  2. Youthful Challengers: Male and female, 16-35, England. Interests match remembrance poppy, British Armed Forces, criminal justice, law enforcement, Remembrance Day, continuing education. Key campaign sub-themes for the audience identified included the NHS and Military. (Audience Size: 58,000)

  3. Embittered Tony: Male, 35+, North of England and Midlands. Interests match men’s humour, social change, political freedom, Piers Morgan. Key campaign sub-themes identified for the audience included Football and Freedom of Speech. (Audience Size: 51,000)

  4. Race Warrior: Male and female, 35+ , England. Interests match Sean Hannity, Bill O’Reilly, Rush Limbaugh. Key campaign sub-themes identified for the audience included: Kindness and the NHS. (Audience Size: 540,000)

  5. Old Timers: Male, 45+, England. Interests match British royal family, British armed forces, Dad’s army. Key campaign sub-themes identified for the audience included: Kindness and Military. (Audience Size: 180,000)

  6. Conspiracy Joe: Male, 45+ , England. Interests match Area 51, freedom of speech. Key campaign sub-themes identified for the audience included: Military. (Audience Size: 330,000)

  7. Conspiracy Jane: Female, 16-45, England. Interests match Area 51, child protection, parenting, conspiracy fiction. Key campaign sub-themes identified for the audience included: Kindness and the NHS. (Audience Size: 130,000)

  8. Lefty John: Male, 16+, England. Interest match University, Master’s degree. Key campaign sub-themes identified for the audience included: Kindness, the NHS & Freedom of Speech. (Audience Size: 40,000)

  9. Citizen John: Male, 45+, South of England. Interests match political satire, political movement. Key campaign sub-themes were excluded for this audience as it wasn’t considered a priority. (Audience Size: 170,000)

N.B. Working Class Warriors & Race Warriors are the largest (therefore prime) testing audiences. For the purposes of retargeting, Conspiracy Joe/Jane could be combined.

iii) Main Findings

a) Facebook Ads Testing: Measuring Levels of Engagement with Far-Right Counter-Narrative Content

11Main Finding 1: Memes that related to the Military and Kindness received the highest number of engagements, comments, impressions and reactions. Consequently, they also saw the highest spend.

12The below table shows the breakdown of reactions to each of the different sub-themes in total across all audiences. As we can glean from below, the Kindness and Military content received the highest number of engagements, comments, impressions and reactions. Consequently, they also saw the highest spend.

  • 17 Data extracted from Facebook Ads manager at time of writing.

Table 2: Summative Cost, Reach and Engagement Metrics from Facebook Ads Testing17

Table 2: Summative Cost, Reach and Engagement Metrics from Facebook Ads Testing17

13Such a result is interesting for several reasons: the first is that - whilst Kindness was weighted double in several of the largest audiences, Military memes were not. In fact, the NHS was the common denominator between all audiences. This might have to do with the larger shares related to this content. In fact, the Military memes were almost three times as likely to be shared when compared to the Kindness material.

14Main finding 2: Statistically and anecdotally, it was noted during live testing that the video (Shared Passions) received the most engagements but also unanimously positive and reflective reactions and comments.

15Having completed the rollout of memes (that tended to receive a mixed reaction), it was immediately noticeable the size and unanimous positivity associated with the rollout of the Shared Passions video. As you can see from the above summative table and below screenshots, the post was liked in larger volume and received both positive and reflective comments from all audience members. This might be due to the longer form nature of the video - getting individuals to reflect on Britishness and what it means to be Britishness - versus a meme that often evokes a more immediate (and sometimes visceral) reaction. In any case, the overall engagement score for the video speaks for itself (see Table 7 above) - with nearly five times the level of engagement versus static content.

Figure 2: Race Warrior - Shared Passions 1 (Video Optimisation)18

Figure 2: Race Warrior - Shared Passions 1 (Video Optimisation)18

16Main Finding 3: Majority of viewers (420,346) watched at least 25% of the Shared Passions video before trailing off.

  • 19 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

Table 3: Views of Shared Passion Videos (Segmented by View Rate)19

3s views

25% Views

50% Views

75% Views

100% Views

288,043

132,303

21,830

15,783

6,480

  • 20 Chen, J., ‘Exploring video length best practices for social media’. Sprout Social, 2020, online at: (...)

17One of the other encouraging findings was that the majority of viewers watched at least 25% of the Shared Passions video before stopping it completely. This is quite a feat (considering the length of the video (1 minute 9 seconds) versus the recommended industry standard (15 seconds)).20 It also speaks volumes of the engaging content created by Amjid Khazir at Media Cultured who gets a special mention for allowing us to use an edit of his ‘Combinations’ video that follows a Muslim boxing coach, Imran Naem, and his love for sport and helping his community.

18Main Finding 4: Interestingly, football had the most saves and scored highly in terms of impressions but did not cut through (i.e. low reactions/engagements). (This could be explained by the sheer quantity of ads.)

  • 21 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

Table 4: Summative Table of Cost, Reach and Engagement Metrics for Football Facebook Ads21

Table 4: Summative Table of Cost, Reach and Engagement Metrics for Football Facebook Ads21

19This high number of impressions and saves might be accounted for by the sheer quantity of adverts (e.g. ten including all variations) and the timeliness of the material (coming from a relatively successful European Championship for England’s football team). As unpacked in the tables below, only three of the ten adverts (Football 1, 5 & 9) accounted for the lion share of engagement:

  • 22 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

Table 5: Breakdown of Cost, Reach and Engagement Metrics for Football Facebook Ads22

Table 5: Breakdown of Cost, Reach and Engagement Metrics for Football Facebook Ads22

20Main Finding 5: High Ranking content that tended to perform better (i.e. scoring an engagement rate of above 2%) had multiple messengers of different ethnicities, had a positive unity message and was presented in a video format.

  • 23 Even in absolute terms, this is a relatively good threshold in any circumstance for promotional con (...)

21Of all the content, the most highest ranking memes and videos - in terms of engagement (i.e. scoring an engagement rate of above 2%)23 - tended to be ones that had a mixture of messengers of different races and promoted messages of unity and group solidarity. For example, Football 1 and 5 both had multiple messengers and either had entreaties to common shared experiences or value statements in the meme text or copy alongside. Moreover, Military 1 and 2 again had a variety of ethnicities as the messenger and positive text promoting resonant issues with the target audience (i.e. the Royal Family and the Military). This chimed with findings from focus group testing that told us that this audience did not like content that raised up a particular audience and that needed to include a message of unity in order for it to be impactful. Also, and on the subject of format (as noted above), video content surpassed the engagement rates of all meme-based content (by over twenty times that of static content) - though the shallowness of views as part of that metric does qualify this somewhat (i.e. views are counted for those who have only seen a video for 3 seconds).

  • 24 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

Table 6: Highest-Ranking Meme & Video Content Across All Themes24

Table 6: Highest-Ranking Meme & Video Content Across All Themes24

22Main Finding 6: Affirmational content tended to perform better on reach metrics, whereas challenging content tended to perform better on engagement.

23Of all the content, affirmational content (i.e. content presented around the themes of Kindness, the NHS, Military, and Football) tended to perform alright in terms of engagement metrics (i.e. some reach over the 2% threshold for what could be considered high-ranking content) but tended to do better when it came to overall reach (out-performing such content by six or seven times when compared with more confrontational content (e.g. Freedom of Speech and Shared Passions content)). This was probably explained by the sheer volume of content (both NHS, Football and Military had several times the number of adverts present in Freedom of Speech and Shared Passions, for example), but also due to its timeline-friendly nature (i.e. evoking positive uniting and non-threatening themes that could then be shared with friends, relatives, and colleagues). More challenging content on the other hand tended to see relatively higher levels of engagement - in terms of comments and reactions per advert - than the more affirmational content. This is not surprising given the wedge nature of the issues presented and suggests that such content should be equally balanced with affirmational alternative narratives.

24Main Finding 7: Working Class Warrior, Race Warrior and Conspiracist audiences were the largest and most engaged out of all nine audiences. They tended to react, share and comment more than any other audience.

25Of all the audiences, when it came to the online testing, Working Class Warrior, Race Warrior and Conspiracist audiences were the largest and most engaged out of all nine audiences. They tended to react, share and comment more than any other audience, and engage in debates in a more sustained and adversarial way. This might be accounted for by their sheer sizes (1.1 million, 540,000, 180,000 and 130,000 respectively) but also their demographics - with a broad base of users, grievances, and issue orientations. In particular, the Freedom of Speech adverts seemed to create the highest engagement rates among these audiences - unsurprising given the politicised nature of this topic in the UK at the time of writing.

  • 25 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

Table 7: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Working Class Warriors25

Table 7: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Working Class Warriors25
  • 26 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

Table 8: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Race Warriors26

Table 8: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Race Warriors26
  • 27 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

Table 9: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Conspiracy Joe27

Table 9: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Conspiracy Joe27
  • 28 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

Table 10: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Conspiracy Jane28

Table 10: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Conspiracy Jane28

b) Pre- and Post-Test Survey: Measuring the Impact of Far-Right Counter-Narratives

i) Survey Design, Rollout & Responses

26Pre- and Post-Test surveys - hosted on Survey Monkey - were designed mainly to glean data from the online audiences about their attitudinal profiles but also their engagement with counter-narrative material; before and after rolling out. For the pre-test survey, each of the nine audiences (listed above) were served the same survey using a Facebook advert with the below image and copy. For the post-test survey, individuals were only served the survey based on their completion rates of the Shared Passion videos (i.e. 3 seconds, 50% and 75% views) and/or whether they sat within the largest and most engaged audiences (i.e. Working Class Warriors, Race Warriors and Conspiracists). In the first instance, all audiences were served the same pre-test survey over 5 days, meanwhile - in the second instance - the post-test survey over 10 days. This was to achieve at least 100 responses within priority audiences (i.e. Working Class Warriors, Race Warriors and Conspiracists) (See complete breakdown of survey audience and responses in Table 11 & 12 below).

  • 29 Creative created by M&C Saatchi for author.

Figure 3: Adverts used to Promote Pre-Test & Post-Test Surveys on Facebook29

Advert Name

Creative

Copy

State of the Nation Questionnaire

It takes less than 60 seconds👇

Everybody Makes Britain Great Questionnaire

It takes less than 2 minutes👇

  • 30 Data extracted from Survey Monkey at time of writing.

Table 11: Pre-Test Survey Questionnaire Name, Audience and Total Responses 30

Questionnaire Name

Audience

Responses

State of the Nation (2021) Questionnaire 1

Working Class Warrior

353

State of the Nation (2021) Questionnaire 2

Youthful Challengers

4

State of the Nation (2021) Questionnaire 3

Embittered Tony

17

State of the Nation (2021) Questionnaire 4

Race Warrior

271

State of the Nation (2021) Questionnaire 5

Old Timers

66

State of the Nation (2021) Questionnaire 6

Conspiracy Joe

172

State of the Nation (2021) Questionnaire 7

Conspiracy Jane

15

State of the Nation (2021) Questionnaire 8

Lefty John

13

State of the Nation (2021) Questionnaire 9

Citizen John

58

Total Responses

969

  • 31 Data extracted from Survey Monkey at time of writing.

Table 12: Post-Test Survey Questionnaire Name, Audience and Total Responses31

Questionnaire Name

Audience

Responses

Everybody Make Britain Great Questionnaire 1

3 Sec Views

876

Everybody Make Britain Great Questionnaire 2

50% Views

100

Everybody Make Britain Great Questionnaire 3

75% Views

81

Everybody Make Britain Great Questionnaire 4

Working Class Warriors - 50% Views

62

Everybody Make Britain Great Questionnaire 5

Race Warriors - 50% Views

82

Everybody Make Britain Great Questionnaire 6

Conspiracists - 50% Views

10

Everybody Make Britain Great Questionnaire 7

Working Class Warriors - 3 Sec Views

15

Everybody Make Britain Great Questionnaire 8

Race Warriors - 3 Sec Views

18

Everybody Make Britain Great Questionnaire 9

Conspiracists - 3 Sec Views

1

Total Responses

1176

27The pre-test survey itself was composed of six attitudinal statements to provide an attitudinal ‘baseline’ for their views on Islam, migrants, and multiculturalism in the UK (advertised as a ‘State of the Nation 2021’ questionnaire) (See Figure 4 below). These were short statements with varying levels of agreement and disagreement based on a five-point Likert scale. The post-test survey (advertised as a ‘Everybody Makes Britain Great’ Questionnaire) was largely the same - with the attitudinal statements asked again to detect attitudinal shift, but also some summative content evaluation questions to see which counter-narrative materials they found most persuasive over the course of the campaign (See Figure 5 below).

  • 32 Screenshots taken from Survey Monkey design portal.

Figure 4: Attitudinal Question Items for Pre-Test and Post-Test Surveys32

Figure 4: Attitudinal Question Items for Pre-Test and Post-Test Surveys32
  • 33 Screenshots taken from Survey Monkey design portal.

Figure 5: Summative Content Evaluation Questions for Post-Test Survey33

Figure 5: Summative Content Evaluation Questions for Post-Test Survey33

ii) Survey Findings

28Main finding 1: Whilst those who strongly disagree with positive statements around Islam, migrants and multiculturalism increased slightly, those who disagreed decreased and those who agreed or agreed strongly increased.

  • 34 This maps onto and coheres broadly with research done on far-right voting in Western Europe. Perhap (...)

29The main - and most significant - finding from the surveys was a daily, significant and detectable attitudinal shift among the audiences relating to their attitudes on Islam, migration and multiculturalism. By combining the number of overall responses to each of the items and converting them into percentages (Table 13), what we find is that those who agreed or strongly agreed with positive statements to do with Islam, migration and multiculturalism increased. Moreover, and sustaining this positive attitudinal shift, those who disagreed also decreased over the course of the campaign. What was interesting with all surveys was the secular bias among respondents - all choosing to agree that religion either did not matter or made things worse within society.34

30Of course, there are some caveats and negative trends present here also. Not every individual who responded to the pre-test survey was exactly the same sample as those who sat the post-test survey but importantly, they were of the same demographic and attitudinal makeup, which made for a good proxy. Moreover, those who strongly disagreed with the positive statements did creep up slightly and - importantly - remained the modal category of responses. This might be explained by the changing composition of the audience and the further, more longitudinal work needed to be done with this audience to dial down their hostility further.

  • 35 Calculated by averaging out all responses across all statements, converting them to percentages and (...)

Table 13: Attitudinal Shift Scores (% Change in Average for Each Response Category)35

Average of…

Strongly Agree

Agree

Tend to Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Don't Know

Pre-Test Survey

4.26%

14.65%

26.53%

51.39%

3.15%

Post-Test Survey

6.58%

14.83%

23.84%

51.6%

3.12%

% Change

+2.32%

+0.18%

-2.69%

+0.21%

-0.03%

31Main finding 2: Memes depicting Kindness and the Military which showed multiple messengers of different ethnicity ranked most highly in the post test survey (with individuals across all sections of the audience selecting these the most when prompted).

32Another key result gleaned from the post-test survey was the type of content that the audiences found most persuasive and/or liked (see Figure 6). Like the online testing, memes depicting Kindness and the Military were key favourites with individuals across all sections of the audience, selecting these the most when prompted. As noted above, this is unsurprising given that unifying themes and multiple messengers of different ethnicity represented performed so well in the focus testing. As part of the post-test survey, open answers were given for respondents to express their rationale for what they liked and did not like. Some of the answers here were illuminating. For example, one respondent said: “I believe in an inclusive country, but not losing our culture” whilst another “We should be respectful to one another irrespective of differences”. Kindness was a key motif in all of the open response answers - with various respondents affirming that “Without kindness there is nothing left”.

Figure 6: Everybody Makes Britain Great Survey – Most Shared, Representative and Favourite Image

Figure 6: Everybody Makes Britain Great Survey – Most Shared, Representative and Favourite Image

(N.B. Image 1-6 are displayed in Figure 5 – going left to right on row 1 and the same for row 2)

33Main finding 3: All audiences and levels of video engagement saw consistent attitudinal scores across all pre- and post-test surveys.

34As borne out by the percentage changes above, what was evident when comparing all forms of audiences and how they responded overall to the survey were the similarities and consistencies in attitudinal scores across all surveys. As highlighted above, the main trend was to disagree or strongly disagree with the positive statements to do with Islam, migration and multiculturalism - aside from statement three which stressed the broad irrelevance of religion in whether or not someone is able to come to the UK.

Figure 7: Overall Attitudinal Responses in Pre-Test Survey

Figure 7: Overall Attitudinal Responses in Pre-Test Survey

Figure 8: Overall Attitudinal Responses in Post-Test Survey

Figure 8: Overall Attitudinal Responses in Post-Test Survey

35Looking at the standard deviation scores (Table 13 & 14 below) across all of the surveys, this high level of consistency is borne out - with very small variations in responses to each of the attitudinal items on the survey. This is 1) not unexpected but 2) reassuring as this suggests a level of accuracy, reliability, and consistency in the demographic and attitudinal makeup in the target audience.

  • 36 Both below tables show perhaps a wider variation than expected; this was due to some surveys having (...)

Table 13: Standard Deviations for Attitudinal Scores (Pre-Test Survey)36

Stad. Dev. (%)

Strongly Agree

Agree

Tend to Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Don't Know

Diversity and multiculturalism are good things for the UK

7.30%

6.79%

13.44%

10.16%

2.57%

I am generally trustful of Muslims

5.16%

5.31%

10.98%

7.60%

4.14%

Islam is a Religion of Peace

4.92%

5.31%

17.87%

13.58%

4.19%

Your faith, for example whether you're Muslim of not, should not bar you from moving to the UK

6.79%

7.80%

10.84%

10.94%

2.78%

I think immigrants make no impact on levels of crime

5.075%

7.46%

8.10%

11.48%

1.95%

I think immigrants improve British culture by making it more open to new ideas

5.17%

5.72%

4.36%

5.74%

2.73%

Table 14: Standard Deviations for Attitudinal Scores (Post-Test Survey)

Stand. Dev. (%)

Strongly Agree

Agree

Tend to Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Don't Know

Diversity and multiculturalism are good things for the UK

3.68%

28.44%

9.94%

17.96%

3.33%

I am generally trustful of Muslims

2.98%

28.67%

12.04%

16.31%

2.56%

Islam is a Religion of Peace

3.67%

4.00%

27.22%

22.036%

4.66%

Your faith, for example whether you're Muslim of not, should not bar you from moving to the UK

5.80%

12.70%

25.57%

12.35%

4.35%

I think immigrants make no impact on levels of crime

3.74%

3.83%

29.37%

24.64%

3.82%

I think immigrants improve British culture by making it more open to new ideas

3.04%

5.37%

26.149%

19.21%

4.12%

Conclusion(s)

36As noted in the introduction to this article, previous studies on counter-narratives have either suffered from a lack of empirical evaluation or lack of ideological specificity. This has raised questions about their effectiveness in achieving attitudinal shifts among extremist sympathetic audiences and - in the cases where such evaluation has taken place - made them so broad as to be virtually useless for researchers and practitioners looking at one form of extremism.

37The pilot study reported in this article aimed to address that. Using ethnographic focus groups and online mass surveys, this research was conducted to develop and test what messages, messengers and mediums work best to dial individuals back from hostile positions on Islam, migration, and multiculturalism. Whilst the extent of the attitudinal shift was tentative, it can be noted that the interventions worked and that the tailored nature of the counter-narrative content led to very little in the way of ‘backfire effects’ (i.e. adverse or radicalizing effects among the target audience).

38Among far-right sympathetic audiences some key areas and lessons to do with counter-narrative content were learnt. Firstly, messages of unity that foster a sense of common human values, togetherness and kindness worked best. In particular, it was learnt that content with a rousing, emotive or ‘feel good’ factor was preferred over more cerebral content. Moreover, if key points of content were introduced, they needed to be straightforward and present factual content that were watertight. It was found that narratives that attacked the far right, singled out or reified a single ethnicity and were too ‘political’ failed to engage the audience – and lead to negative reactions. Finally, and to summarize again, some content worked better on some audience members rather than others (e.g. females particularly adverse to aggressive content and historical content did not run well with younger audience). Moreover, videos tended to outperform static meme content, and produced more positive and reflective responses from far-right sympathetic audiences.

39Moving forward, there is obviously scope to expand on such a methodology to see what works in other geographical contexts and with individuals who are either slightly further up or down the route of radicalization towards violent extremism. For example, projects with younger far-right users on Instagram or TikTok could use essentially the same method (i.e. focus groups then mass surveys) but would need fine-tuning to their different interests (i.e. mixed martial arts or environmental issues) and consider vulnerabilities that are leading them into more ideological forms of engagement (e.g. mental health, social isolation and self-esteem issues). Additionally, different geographical contexts would also require further fine-tuning for the narratives presented and target groups negotiated. For example, projects with far-right informal or soft supporters in the US and Australasia would need to account for attitudes towards ‘first nations’ peoples and other immigrant groups that draw the ire of the far right - being sensitive to the history and perceptions of history therein.

40Finally, and going forward, one big question to ask of future testing research is the sustainability of such attitudinal shifts and how counter-narratives figure within wider P/CVE approaches. For example, do we need to serve the same audiences a follow-up survey in the month after they’ve been exposed to counter-narrative content to see whether there is sustained attitudinal shift? Can we measure a behavioural shift because of counter-narrative campaigns? And, crucially, do counter-narrative campaigns need de-radicalization professionals on hand to do one-to-one follow-up when an individual shows signs of being at-risk of violent radicalization? All these innovations could be integrated into counter-narrative testing going forward - especially on the far right.

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Bibliographie

Allchorn, W., ‘Technology and the Swarm: A Dialogic Turn in Online Far-Right Activism’, GNET Insight Blog, 17th January 2020, Retrieved from:https://gnet-research.org/2020/01/17/technology-and-the-swarm-a-dialogic-turn-in-online-far-right-activism/.

Allchorn, W., ‘Radical Right Counter Narratives Expert Workshop Report’, Abu Dhabi, UAE: Hedayah, 2021, online at: https://hedayah.com/app/uploads/2021/09/CARR-Hedayah-RRCN-Workshop-Report_Final-1.pdf.

Arzheimer, K. and Carter, E., ‘Christian Religiosity and Voting for West European Radical Right Parties’, West European Politics, 32(5), 985-1011, 2009, DOI: 10.1080/01402380903065058.

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Braddock, K., Weaponized words: The strategic role of persuasion in violent radicalization and counter-radicalization, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

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Dafnos, A. ‘Narratives as a Means of Countering the Radical Right; Looking into the Trojan T-shirt Project’, Journal EXIT Deutschland, Vol 3, 2014, online at: https://journal-exit.de/category/journal/2014/3-14/.

Davey, J., Birdwell, J. & Skellett, R., Counter-Conversations: A model for direct engagement with individuals showing signs of radicalisation online, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, February 2018, online at: https://www.isdglobal.org/isd-publications/counter-conversations-a-model-for-direct-engagement-with-individuals-showing-signs-of-radicalisation-online/.

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Helmus, T.C. & Klein, K., ‘Assessing the Outcomes of Online Campaigns in Counter Violent Extremism: A Case Study of the Redirect Method’, Washington, D.C.: RAND Corporation, 2018.

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Rees, J., Montasari, R., ‘The Use of Counter Narratives to Combat Violent Extremism Online’, In: Montasari, R., Carpenter, V., Masys, A.J. (eds) Digital Transformation in Policing: The Promise, Perils and Solutions. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications, Springer, Cham, 2023, online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-09691-4_2.

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Saltman, E., Kooti, F., and Vockery, K., ‘New Models for Deploying Counterspeech: Measuring Behavioral Change and Sentiment Analysis’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 2021. DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2021.1888404.

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Notes

1 Tuck, H. and Silverman, T., ‘The Counter-Narrative Handbook’, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, 2016, p. 16.

2 Allchorn, W. ‘Technology and the Swarm: A Dialogic Turn in Online Far-Right Activism’, GNET Insight Blog, January 17, 2020.

3 Dearden, L., ‘Finsbury Park terror suspect Darren Osborne read messages from Tommy Robinson days before attack, court hears’, The Independent, January 23, 2018 ; BBC News, ‘Dover migrant centre attack driven by right-wing ideology – police’, November 5, 2022.

4 Macklin, G., ‘The El Paso Terrorist Attack: The Chain Reaction of Global Right-Wing Terror’, CTC Sentinel, December 2019.

5 Duffy, B., Hewlett, K., McCrae, J., & Hall, J. ‘Divided Britain? Polarisation and Fragmentation Trends in the UK’, Kings College, London: Policy Institute, September 2019.

6 Ford, R., & Goodwin, M. J. “Britain After Brexit: A Nation Divided”. Journal of Democracy 28, no. 1 (January 2017): 17-30.

7 Davey, J., Birdwell, J. & Skellett, R., Counter-Conversations: A model for direct engagement with individuals showing signs of radicalisation online, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, February 2018; Frenett, R. & Dow, M.. One to One Online Interventions – A Pilot CVE Methodology, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, September 2015 ; & Silverman, T., Stewart, C.J., Amanullah, Z., and Birdwell, J., The Impact of Counter Narratives, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, 2016.

8 Briggs, R. & Feve, S., Review of Programs to Counter Narratives of Violent Extremism, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, 2013; Hedayah/ICCT. ‘Developing Effective Counter-Narrative Frameworks for Countering Violent Extremism’, Hedayah/ICCT: Abu Dhabi/Hague, 2014; Reynolds, L and Tuck H., The Counter Narrative Monitoring and Evaluation Handbook, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, 2016; & Reynolds, L and Tuck H., The Counter Narrative Monitoring and Evaluation Handbook, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, 2016.

9 Briggs, R. & Feve, S., Review of Programs to Counter Narratives of Violent Extremism, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, 2013; Dafnos, A. ‘Narratives as a Means of Countering the Radical Right; Looking into the Trojan T-shirt Project’, Journal EXIT Deutschland, Vol 3, 2014 ; Helmus, T.C. & Klein, K., ‘Assessing the Outcomes of Online Campaigns in Counter Violent Extremism: A Case Study of the Redirect Method’, Washington, D.C.: RAND Corporation, 2018; & Silverman, T., Stewart, C.J., Amanullah, Z., and Birdwell, J., The Impact of Counter Narratives, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue’, London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue, 2016.

10 Here, ‘far-right sympathetic audiences’ are defined as individuals who have stridently hostile views to immigration, Islam and multiculturalism (Bjørgo and Ravndal, 2019). They are not members of a far-right organisations but cleave to the same ideological tenets.

11 Allchorn, W., ‘Radical Right Counter Narratives Expert Workshop Report’, Abu Dhabi, UAE: Hedayah, 2021, online at: https://hedayah.com/app/uploads/2021/09/CARR-Hedayah-RRCN-Workshop-Report_Final-1.pdf.

12 See: Saltman, E., Kooti, F., and Vockery, K., ‘New Models for Deploying Counterspeech: Measuring Behavioral Change and Sentiment Analysis’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 2021 for size effects in such experiments.

13 All images created for the author by M&C Saatchi.

14 See Braddock (2020) & Rees and Montasari (2023) for more on harnessing these effects.

15 Such a shift to 5 to 10 day intervals is also borne out by counter-speech research - with an internal Facebook study on gay marriage attitudinal shift showing that exposures of 2-3 pieces of content per day over a 5-7day period were optimal. See: Saltman, E., Kooti, F., and Vockery, K. (2021). ‘New Models for Deploying Counterspeech: Measuring Behavioral Change and Sentiment Analysis’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, pp.9-10.

16 An exception was made here for the final post-test survey which went out for ten days and was targeted based on views of the final Shared Passions video.

17 Data extracted from Facebook Ads manager at time of writing.

18 Post can be viewed here: https://www.facebook.com/111849444007019/posts/345506263974668

19 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

20 Chen, J., ‘Exploring video length best practices for social media’. Sprout Social, 2020, online at: https://sproutsocial.com/insights/video-length-best-practices/.

21 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

22 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

23 Even in absolute terms, this is a relatively good threshold in any circumstance for promotional content on Facebook. The all-industry median benchmark for Facebook content is 0.09%. See: Chen, J. (2021) for more information on industry benchmarks.

24 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

25 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

26 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

27 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

28 Data extracted from Facebook Ads Manager at time of writing.

29 Creative created by M&C Saatchi for author.

30 Data extracted from Survey Monkey at time of writing.

31 Data extracted from Survey Monkey at time of writing.

32 Screenshots taken from Survey Monkey design portal.

33 Screenshots taken from Survey Monkey design portal.

34 This maps onto and coheres broadly with research done on far-right voting in Western Europe. Perhaps counterintuitively, studies show that Christianity actually works as a protective factor against far-right extremism. See: Arzheimer, K. and Carter, E. (2009). ‘Christian Religiosity and Voting for West European Radical Right Parties’. West European Politics, 32(5), 985-1011, DOI: 10.1080/01402380903065058.

35 Calculated by averaging out all responses across all statements, converting them to percentages and seeing the net change in attitudinal scores.

36 Both below tables show perhaps a wider variation than expected; this was due to some surveys having very low completion rates (See Table 12 above).

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Titre Table 7: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Working Class Warriors25
URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-34.jpg
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Titre Table 8: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Race Warriors26
URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-35.jpg
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Titre Table 9: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Conspiracy Joe27
URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-36.jpg
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Titre Table 10: Levels of Reach and Engagement among Conspiracy Jane28
URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-37.jpg
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URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-38.jpg
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URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-39.png
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Titre Figure 4: Attitudinal Question Items for Pre-Test and Post-Test Surveys32
URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-40.png
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Titre Figure 5: Summative Content Evaluation Questions for Post-Test Survey33
URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-41.png
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URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-42.png
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URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-44.png
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Titre Figure 6: Everybody Makes Britain Great Survey – Most Shared, Representative and Favourite Image
Légende (N.B. Image 1-6 are displayed in Figure 5 – going left to right on row 1 and the same for row 2)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-45.jpg
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Titre Figure 7: Overall Attitudinal Responses in Pre-Test Survey
URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-46.jpg
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Titre Figure 8: Overall Attitudinal Responses in Post-Test Survey
URL http://journals.openedition.org/osb/docannexe/image/6097/img-47.jpg
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William Allchorn, « Dialling Down Hatred: An Online Pilot Project to Test Counter-Narrative Effectiveness Among Far-Right Sympathetic Audiences in the UK »Observatoire de la société britannique, 30 | 2023, 157-190.

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William Allchorn, « Dialling Down Hatred: An Online Pilot Project to Test Counter-Narrative Effectiveness Among Far-Right Sympathetic Audiences in the UK »Observatoire de la société britannique [En ligne], 30 | 2023, mis en ligne le 01 janvier 2024, consulté le 18 juin 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/osb/6097 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/osb.6097

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Auteur

William Allchorn

Honorary Senior Research Fellow à Anglia Ruskin University et directeur par intérim du Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right (CARR)

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Le texte et les autres éléments (illustrations, fichiers annexes importés), sont « Tous droits réservés », sauf mention contraire.

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