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This Somewhere, this Anywhere - this Liverpool

Mark Kay
p. 217-238

Résumé

The cleavages and dichotomies of Brexit are evermore numerous. In an attempt to better understand the Leave and Remain vote, this article returns to one of the oldest divides - the rural-urban dichotomy with a focus on the urban and considers the role of belonging, ontological security and the sense of place in what was once Britain’s second city of Empire - Liverpool.1 Making use of quantitative data collected through questionnaires as part of my doctoral research, the importance of place identity and place attachment in the 2016 referendum will be considered in the context of Liverpool. The city is open to the world but with its resonant locale, it remains a ‘Somewhere’ place.

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Introduction

  • 2 Jennings, W & Stoker, G. “Brexit and public opinion: cities and towns - the geography of disconte (...)

1Research by the UK network of independent academics ‘UK in a Changing Europe’ found stark geographical disparities and distinct patterns with regard to the formation of Brexit-based identities as residents of less densely populated, rural areas were more likely to feel they had more in common with people who voted to leave the European Union as opposed to the residents of major cities who felt they had substantially less in common.2 The urban-rural dichotomy, as readers of The Financial Times were reminded in 2015, is anything but new,

  • 3 McDermott, J. “England’s Liberal Cities”, The Financial Times, 27th January 2015. https://www.ft. (...)

urban and rural areas have different politics isn’t of course a new observation. Tory-Whig parliamentary battles were often proxies for conflicting views between landed gentry and city dwellers. [...] What is new is how big cities – especially their cores – are once again expanding and, in doing so, taking on a clearer liberal identity. Cities are where England’s open and cosmopolitan outlook is most apparent.3

  • 4 Wild, R. A. (1974). “Localities, Social Relationships, and the Rural-Urban Continuum”. The Austra (...)

2 The application of dichotomous ideal-type models has been used to great advantage by many sociologists. Durkheim’s ‘mechanical solidarity’ v. ‘organic solidarity’ or Weber’s ‘Traditional’ v. Rational’ are testimony to how dichotomous thinking can help with the study and understanding of societal phenomena. Tönnies’ distinction between ‘Gemeinschaft’ and ‘Gesellschaft’ (loosely translated as community and society) placed ‘natural’ relationships that had emotional solidarity built on kinship or neighbourhoods in opposition to relationships constructed on a rationally calculated contract - this was perhaps the most useful dichotomy when dealing with place or locality-based research.4

  • 5 Park, R. E. (1915). “The City: Suggestions for the Investigation of Human Behavior in the City En (...)
  • 6 urbs in rure - the town in the countryside/in a rural setting

3 Indeed, early American urban sociologists stressed the differences between ‘folk-culture’ and ‘urbanites’ with such differences being posited using the ‘urban-rural continuum’.5 The effects the interplay of migration and urban expansion had on the values and culture of inhabitants and the community were the foci of much discussion and debate - social interaction, neighbourliness and newly acquired ‘urban behaviours’. Also researched was social urbanisation i.e. the spread of new ‘urban’, social mores and values back to left-behind groups in the rural hinterland - urbs in rure.6

  • 7 Dewey, R. (1960). “The Rural-Urban Continuum: Real but Relatively Unimportant”. American Journal (...)
  • 8 Benet, F. (1963). “Sociology Uncertain: The Ideology of the Rural-Urban Continuum”. Comparative S (...)

4 During the 1960s however, much debate surfaced as to the validity and pertinence of the rural-urban continuum conceptual framework as, at best, it was increasingly seen as restrictive and at worst ‘fruitless’.7 The morphological shortcomings and the ethnocentricity of the theory were also highlighted - how does one qualify ‘folk’?8

  • 9 Pahl, R. E. (1966). “The Rural-Urban Continuum”. Sociologia Ruralis, 6(3), 299-329.
  • 10 Frankenberg, R. Communities in Britain: Social Life in Town and Country. Penguin. 1966
  • 11 Coleman, J. S. Foundations of Social Theory. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1990

5 Added to this questioning of the Chicago-based theory, it should not be forgotten that in the British context, as late as the 1970s, the salience of social class and stratification was paramount and indeed even more relevant than the rural-urban dichotomy.9 However, also in the British context, the continuum did not experience the same level of contestation as witnessed in 1960s American social-science; Frankenberg’s seminal work Communities in Britain even expanded on the dichotomies, adding a further twenty-five categories, thus suggesting that the continuum could be adapted to fit the research needs of the time.10 Debate around the framework would continue into the 1980s with sociologists even raising doubts about the sociological value of community itself.11

  • 12 Bell, M. M. (1992). “The Fruit of Difference: The Rural‐Urban Continuum as a System of Identity”. (...)
  • 13 Dorling, D. (2016). “Brexit: the decision of a divided country”. BMJ, 354, i3697; Harris, R., & (...)

6 Despite the ever-changing sociological academic theory on community and the rural-urban continuum, it should not be forgotten that these ideas remain in the collective mindset and continue to be strongly-held, popular, central beliefs across all strata of society.12 The extract from The Financial Times is testimony to both the relevance of and ease of utilisation to the rural-urban dichotomy in popular culture; so too is the burgeoning academic literature on the geography of the Brexit vote, proof certainly that the rural-urban divide continues to be worthy of study.13

  • 14 Morgan, D. H. J. (2005). “Revisiting ‘communities in Britain’”. The Sociological Review, 53(4), 641 (...)

7 The second half of The Financial Times extract explains how the central areas of large cities are ‘taking on a clearer liberal identity’. It is this key theme of identity, gleaned over (or even ignored) by the early urban sociologists that is of interest to us. Indeed, although now clearly central to much theoretical work in the social sciences, the word identity does not even figure in the index of Frankenburg’s work.14

8 Given its increasing fragmentation, how important was identity at the meso-level in the 2016 Brexit referendum? Using the northern port city of Liverpool and its inhabitants as a focus of study, this article will consider the principal and the more recent divides and cleavages that permeate our societies. Focussing solely on voter identity would be restrictive and so this work will reflect on the significance of ‘place identity’ and the symbiotic relationship between city and resident.

Divides and Cleavages

  • 15 Evans, G., Stubager, R., & Langsæther, P. E. (2022). “The conditional politics of class identity: (...)
  • 16 Clark, T. N., Lipset, S. M., & Rempel, M. (1993). “The declining political significance of social (...)

9 Social identity theory, which is made-up in part by place-identity, made advances through the thinking of Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the 1980s and there has been a renewal of interest in research in an attempt to understand electoral outcomes.15 The place that social-identity and values hold in terms of voter-choice are seen as central to postfunctionalist thinking, particularly with the declining political significance of social class from the 1980s onwards.16 The fluidity of once fixed identities and the fragmentation of group-help, community beliefs have resulted in the individual and the identity or rather, the identities of the individual replacing the settled, traditional or structuralist sense of self. Indeed,

  • 17 Goodhart, D. The Road to Somewhere - The New Tribes Shaping British Politics. Penguin. 2017. p. 59.

when it’s no longer even clear what it means to be working or middle class, there is no clear sense of belonging to a group that can be represented. “The likes of us” are no longer members of a well-defined group, spread all over the country, but more fragmented groupings, such as people “born and bred around here” or “from the estates”.17

  • 18 Ford, R., & Sobolewska, M. Brexitland. Cambridge University Press. 2020.

10 As Sobolewska and Ford’s book Brexitland demonstrates, these evolutions have been a long time in the making; but it is only since the Brexit referendum and the decoupling of voters from their party attachment that the importance of the ever-evolving role of voters’ changing identities in electoral choice has been given popular prominence.18 The book helps the reader understand the United Kingdom’s new constitutional and political divides and while these particular political divides, which are based on identity, may well be new, the divisions or rather dichotomies within society are, of course, not.

  • 19 Lipset, S. M., & Rokkan, S. Cleavage Structures, Party Systems and Voter Alignments: An Introduct (...)

11 Divides that are profound and entrenched are called cleavages. The use of the word in political science comes from Lipset and Rokkan’s pioneering theory from 1967 that identified four cleavages present in European societies i.e. Center-Periphery Cleavage, State-Church Cleavage, Rural-Urban Cleavage and Owner-Worker Cleavage, each of these being a deep divide, the study of which can help us better understand the political systems and the societies in which these systems exist and operate.19

  • 20 Clark, T. N., & Lipset, S. M. (1991). “Are social classes dying?” International sociology, 6(4), (...)

12 Some of the cleavages may be neither enduring nor embedded, with the role of the Church now being much diminished in Western society. Other cleavages may be enduring but also malleable in their scope. Lipset and Rokkan posited that the Owner-Worker Cleavage was a divide based on factors such as class, income and education; though, the waning influence of class and economic determinism in Western society has resulted in its diminished salience while at the same time the importance of individual identity and cultural values has gained in significance.20 Similarly, the economic mutations experienced as a result of globalisation and the resultant modification to incomes and income disparity among populations led to a further disconnect between income on the one hand and class and class-based values on the other. The cleavage therefore continues to exist notwithstanding, in the same vein as Frankenberg and his Communities in Britain, a refashioning of the criteria.

  • 21 O’Rourke, K. H., & Williamson, J. G. Globalization and history: the evolution of a nineteenth-cen (...)

13 Globalisation creates both winners and losers.21 Post Brexit referendum, academic literature began to highlight the role played by those who had been unable to capitalise on the opportunities afforded by the transformations of globalisation and they came to wear the label ‘the left-behinds’.

  • 22 Goodwin, M. J., & Heath, O. (2016). “The 2016 referendum, Brexit and the left behind: An aggregat (...)

The public vote for Brexit was anchored predominantly, albeit not exclusively, in areas of the country that are filled with pensioners, low-skilled and less well-educated blue-collar workers and citizens who have been pushed to the margins not only by the economic transformation of the country over recent decades but also by the values that have come to dominate a more socially liberal media and political class. In this respect the vote for Brexit was delivered by the ‘left behind’—social groups.22

  • 23 The Cosmopolitans and the Communitarians -Teney, C., Lacewell, O. P., & De Wilde, P. (2014). “Wi (...)

14 In terms of globalisation, the dichotomy of winners and losers is indeed powerful and it fits neatly into Lipset and Rokkan’s Owner-Worker cleavage. It is within the backdrop of these concomitant mutations experienced by Western society i.e. economic change following the advent of globalisation and value changes as a result of fragmentation of group-based identities that we turn to new dichotomous structures to help comprehend the divides. Cogent dichotomies that explain the resultant societal transformation in a globalised world have been formulated since the end of the first decade of this century including - ‘the cosmopolitans’ v. ‘the Communitarians’; ‘the Globalists’ v. ‘the Nationalists’ or indeed, the ‘Somewheres’ v. ‘the Anywheres’.23

  • 24 Manley, D., Jones, K., & Johnston, R. (2017). “The geography of Brexit – What geography? Modellin (...)

15 The EU referendum revealed the UK to be clearly fragmented with clear differences between people and places. It is perhaps salient therefore to study more closely the juxtaposition of people and place. Indeed, academic studies have revealed the significance, not of ‘left-behind’ social groups, but rather of the towns and cities in which these people live - the ‘left-behind’ places.24 In this sense, the work of the early (urban) sociologists, that of humanist geographers together with the application of dichotomous cleavage structures can help to have a more developed insight into the relationship between globalisation, people, place, the rural but more particularly the urban and the vote for Brexit.

  • 25 Johnston, R., Manley, D., Pattie, C., & Jones, K. (2018). “Geographies of Brexit and its aftermat (...)

16 Using population characteristics such as income and educational attainment Liverpool and its hinterland Merseyside were identified as the place, outside of London, with the largest over prediction for Brexit i.e. the Brexit vote - the vote for leaving the European Union - should have been higher than the actual result.25 As a reminder the official referendum results in the city of Liverpool were 42.8% Leave and 58.2% Remain.

  • 26 Kanagasooriam, J., & Simon, E. (2021). “Red Wall: The Definitive Description”. Political Insight, (...)
  • 27 @JamesKanag, 28th January 2021. “We’ve (@HanburyStrategy) calculated ward level EU Referendum est (...)

17James Kanagasooriam, who incidentally invented the term ‘red-wall’, modelled referendum results at the electoral ward level.26 With the combination of more than 1000 real results and 7000 modelled results his findings showed a much more complex result than the rural leave areas against remain cities dichotomy.27 Very kindly forwarding modelled findings for the city of Liverpool, his work showed the ward with the highest leave vote to be Clubmoor in the north of the city with a 55% leave vote and the ward with the highest remain vote which was St Michael’s in the south of the city with 79% of voters opting for remain. Focusing on these two wards - Saint Michael’s and Clubmoor and as part of doctoral research, 401 inhabitants from these two wards were interviewed in August 2022. The results of the research showed that 77% of those interviewed in Saint Michael’s voted remain which closely corresponds to the modelled result - 79%, and a 33% leave vote in Clubmoor, which is significantly lower than the 55% in the modelled result.

  • 28 Johnston, R et al, op cit
  • 29 Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government. “The English Indices of Deprivation 2019” (...)

18Why then was Liverpool identified as the largest over prediction for Brexit?28 Using the British government’s index of multiple deprivation (2019), we see that using the SCORE method, Liverpool is the third most deprived local authority overall in England (in 2007 it was ranked first).29 In terms of income, it is the fourth most deprived local authority; the fifth most deprived local authority in terms of employment and also the fifth most deprived local authority when taking living environment into consideration. Bearing in mind the cleavages of the haves and have nots or the left-behinds, clearly the vote for Brexit should have been higher in the city.

19Of those interviewed 56.4% stated that they earned less than the median salary in the north-west of England, which was £29,500 in 2022. In terms of winners and losers of globalisation, clearly in terms of salary or income to make use of Lipset & Rokkan’s Owner-Worker cleavage, a slight majority of Liverpool residents may be considered ‘left-behind’.

Place Identity and Sense of Belonging

20Rather than focusing on left-behind people, the juxtaposition of people and place is perhaps more judicious. The area of interest is more the places inhabited by those considered to be left-behind rather than the left-behinds per se.

  • 30 op cit
  • 31 Twigger-Ross, C. L., & Uzzell, D. L. (1996). “Place and identity processes”. Journal of environme (...)

21Values and identity, as Ford and Sobolewska determined, now have increased notability as sources of the deepening divides in society.30 The new cleavages - ‘identity liberal’ or ‘identity conservative’ have many component parts - social category or perceptions of social category being one of them. Place can be considered to be a social category made of different social identifications in much the same manner as nationality, religion, gender or sexuality and as such, place identification denotes membership of a group defined by location.31

  • 32 Agnew, J. Space: place. In A. Ni Mhurchu & R. Shindo (Eds.), Spaces of geographical thought (pp. 81 (...)

22How then does a place acquire its own identity? John Agnew (2005) identified three determining factors for a place to have a real identity, the first, quite simply being that it needs a location - coordinates or to be somewhere on the map. Secondly that the place needs to be a locale - e.g. a city or neighbourhood with a social context or a material setting for social interactions. Thirdly there needs to be a sense of place which means there needs to be a subjective and emotional attachment to a city or a town.32

23Not only can a place have its own distinct identity but the forms of attachment between the resident and the urban entity can be varied and may modify over time. This place attachment is also known as belonging or sense of belonging. There is some overlap in place identity theory and place attachment theory but

  • 33 Shao, Y., Lange, E., Thwaites, K., & Liu, B. (2017). “Defining local identity”. Landscape Archite (...)

at a local level, Place Identity/Attachment is the identity that focuses on more fundamental issues, such as physical interaction, social experiences, residents’ feelings of satisfaction and historical heritage. With these aspects together, they influence personal identity, which also concerns the interaction of people and the environment but more importantly emphasises how people “feel” about the local area, and can be affected by both sensory and memory aspects of experience of the local place.33

  • 34 Relph, E. Place and Placelessness. Pion Limited. 1976.

24 Humanist geographers in the 1970s, led by Edward Relph with the publication of his groundbreaking thesis, ‘Place and Placelessness’ posited that in a globalized world, a world of mass production, a world of mass movement and a world facing ‘Disneynification’ and endless resemblance, many towns and cities were at risk of losing their unique characteristics and falling victim to placelessness with a loss of place-identity.34 He argued that people cannot be attached to fake copies.

  • 35 Ford, R., & Goodwin, M. (2017). “Britain after Brexit: A nation divided”. Journal of Democracy, 2 (...)

25 The attachment one has to a place and the identity one ascribes to one’s place of living – abode, town or city can be modified over time and so in this way it can alter one’s own sense of self. This has profound implications for the interplay between place-identity, self-identity and one’s position in the new set of cleavages which were exposed by and have deepened since the Brexit referendum; these cleavages are “largely cultural rather than economic”.35

  • 36 Casey, E. S., Body, Self and Landscape. A Geophilosophical Inquiry into the Place-World. In P. C. (...)
  • 37 Casey, E.S., op cit
  • 38 Notes and Queries section, “Why are people from Liverpool called scousers? Is it an insulting ter (...)

26One’s identity is formed internally in the mind and through the body’s interaction with the outside world, there is no place without self and no self without place. Yi-Fu Tan’s book Space and Place “was epoch-making because of its stress on the experiential features of place, its "subjective" or "lived" aspects”.36 Any risk to place identity would affect self-identity. The risk of places ‘thinning out’ and merging with space is a known effect of ‘glocalisation’.37 The questionnaire completed by 401 inhabitants of Liverpool asked if they identified as Scouse and of those who grew up in the city, 95.5% replied that they did.38 Interestingly, out of those who moved into the city as an adult after the age of 18, only 26.1% identified as Scouse. A similar study carried out in the city of Hull (385 respondents) in January 2023 found that 35.8% of those who had moved to Hull after the age of 18 identified as Hullensian, a higher percentage then than in Liverpool.

  • 39 Deffner, A., & Metaxas, T. (2007). Place marketing, local identity and cultural planning: The Cul (...)
  • 40 “Project synopsis for Liverpool and Empire, 1700-1970”. The University of Liverpool. https://www. (...)
  • 41 Munck, R. Reinventing the City?: Liverpool In Comparative Perspective. Liverpool University Press. (...)
  • 42 Kelly, L. “Irish Migration to Liverpool and Lancashire in the Nineteenth Century”, The University (...)
  • 43 McSweeney, D. “Liverpool’s Orange lodges and the parading season”, The Guardian, 21st June 2012. (...)

27Identity of place is also viewed in relation to the historical heritage and the traditional characteristics of the region.39 Liverpool is clearly not concerned or affected by placelessness as it has a number of unique, historical characteristics rooted in the 18th and 19th centuries that would lock-in a distinctive sense of place and place-identity. It was a prominent slavery port, it was known as the New York of Europe and the second city of Empire with its back to England looking out to the Irish sea and beyond to the Atlantic ocean.40 The history and culture of the city of Liverpool are embodied in its buildings and the urban fabric of the place.41 It was and continues to be, albeit in considerably smaller numbers, a city of emigration and of immigration with a large number of Irish immigrants moving to or through the city on their way to America. In 1851 Irish migrants accounted for just over 22% of the total population.42 Similarly, the city was and continues to be, although again, to a much lesser extent, a city of religious divides which in turn led to political divides. The city was the main hub for the Orange Order in the UK and the grouping continues to exist though its numbers are greatly reduced.43 Liverpool also had the only constituency to return an MP who was a member of an Irish nationalist party; T.P O’Connor was returned for the Liverpool Scotland constituency from 1885 until his death in 1929.

  • 44 Surridge, P. (2021). “Brexit, British politics and values”, UK in a changing Europe, 30th January (...)
  • 45 Thrift, N. J. (1983). On the Determination of Social Action in Space and Time. Environment and Pl (...)

28In the United Kingdom, identity and values at an individual level are known to be driving forces behind voter choice.44 With the link between self-identity and place-identity being established, it is pertinent to consider how this plays out at the ballot box. Nigel Thrift writing in 1983 identified compositional and contextual reasons behind voting decisions.45 If the voting decision is taken to promote self-interest, it is called a compositional effect. An example is when the outcome of the vote reflects the geography of social groups e.g. social class sharing similar attitudes. If, however, the voting decision is based on hyper-local influences then, in political geography these are called contextual effects.

Contextual Effects

  • 46 Jeffery, D. Whatever happened to Tory Liverpool?: Success, decline, and irrelevance since 1945. Liv (...)

29Liverpool with its distinct lack of ‘placelessness’, as defined by Relph, is clearly a place with heightened place identity. The role played by Liverpool in the historiography of Empire has created a number of contextual historical framed memories which could lead to contextual voting. More recent political history saw the decline in the fortunes of the Tory party in Liverpool, in part due to the decline in salience of religiosity in local politics but this trend accelerated with the dismantling of the Fordist/Keynesian economic model and the resultant significant increases in unemployment rates.46 ‘Decline’ is a loaded word on Merseyside and more so in Liverpool as it makes reference to the planned “managed Conservative decline” of the early 1980s following the civil unrest of the Toxteth riots (1981).

30Private correspondence from Sir Geoffrey Howe to Margaret Thatcher in 1981, released under the 30-year rule in 2011 showed that the then Chancellor Howe wrote to the Prime Minster to share his thoughts on regeneration in Liverpool and on Merseyside, stating

  • 47 “Thatcher urged ‘Let Liverpool Decline’ after 1981 riots” BBC News, 30th December 2011. https://w (...)

it would be even more regrettable if some of the brighter ideas for renewing economic activity were to be shown only on relatively stony ground on the banks of the Mersey. I cannot help feeling that the option of managed decline is one which we should not forget altogether, we must not expand all our limited resources in trying to make water flow uphill.47

  • 48 Parker, S. “The Leaving of Liverpool: managed decline and the enduring legacy of Thatcherism’s ur (...)

31Michael Heseltine, also known as the ‘Minister for Merseyside’, is perhaps the only prominent Conservative politician, if not liked, then at least ‘appreciated’ in the city and not for his role in the downfall of his political nemesis Margaret Thatcher, but rather for his active involvement in the redevelopment of Liverpool in the 1980s.48 Notwithstanding Heseltine’s efforts, Jeffrey argues that the use of Liverpool and the city’s inhabitants as an example of “municipal profligacy” and “feckless scroungers”, by media and politicians alike, resulted in Liverpudlians seeking

  • 49 Jeffrey, D. op cit p. 210

positive ‘self-esteem’ via a rejection of the key tenets of Thatcherism and instead [they] place[d] an emphasis on concepts of solidarity, collectivism and a reformulation of anti-establishment (read: anti-Conservative) values. This, in effect, led to the emergence of a strong anti-Conservative, and especially anti-Thatcher, element in Scouse identity.49

32Perceived Tory neglect (a source of hyper-local contextual voting) hastened and cemented the downfall of the Conservative party on Merseyside; it also fed into and propagated an urban narrative that the Conservatives had accentuated an ethnographic construct of ‘the Other’ for the city.

  • 50 Pocock, D., Charles, D., & Hudson, R. Images of the Urban Environment. Macmillan. 1978. p. 111

33The ‘Other’ construct for Liverpool sits astride the accepted and irrefragable North-South divide in England. The north, the perceptions of which “have emerged as a historical product of established (and largely southern) intellectual and literary channels,” exists “in sharp contrast, overtly or implied, to the south”.50 Not only a northern town but one that had been disparaged, Liverpool is clearly recognisable as a marginal place as described by Shields i.e. somewhere that has been placed

  • 51 Shields, R. Places on the Margin: Alternative Geographies of Modernity. Routledge. 1991. p. 207

on the periphery of cultural systems of space in which [they] are ranked relative to each other. They all carry the image, and stigma, of their marginality which becomes indistinguishable from any basic empirical identity they might once have had.51

  • 52 Jewell, J. “Finally the truth about Hillsborough (but you won’t read it on the front of The Sun)” (...)

34Clearly the Hillsborough disaster of 1989 which resulted in the deaths of 97 Liverpool supporters and the subsequent mishandling of the police investigation and false reporting by the London-based media in general and by The Sun in particular, also fed into the ‘othering’ of Liverpool and the inhabitants of the city thus accentuating the unique nature of Liverpool place-identity, in turn providing ever-more contextual effects for voters.52

  • 53 Vainikka, J. (2013). “The role of identity for regional actors and citizens in a splintered regio (...)
  • 54 Smith, B. “Estuary English in the 21st century”. DialectBlog, 4th June 2011. http://dialectblog.c (...)
  • 55 Juskan, M. (2015). Selective accent revival in Liverpool. Linguistisches Internationales Promotio (...)

35The everyday interaction between inhabitants and place, through the prism of framed legacies and collective memory creates a link between both and this bond is further solidified by the use of local vocabulary or local accent.53 In a period of time where estuary English is spreading out from the confines of the south east, the Liverpool accent, also known as a Scouse accent, has gone through a hardening, particularly among younger people and is spreading into the hinterlands of Lancashire, Cheshire and north Wales.54 Indeed, despite the fact that the accent is stigmatised in the United Kingdom, not only is it experiencing a revival, it is getting stronger.55 This audible sound of otherness enhances the unique place-identity held by the city, the accent clearly being the accent of ‘somewhere’. The accentuation of the accent by the inhabitants of the city and surrounding areas is perhaps a sign of their desire to embosom this ‘otherness’ for

  • 56 LePage, R.B., and Tabouret-Keller, A. Acts of identity: Creole-based approaches to language and e (...)

the individual creates for himself the patterns of linguistic behaviours so as to resemble those of the group or groups, with which he wishes to be identified, so as to be unlike those from whom he wishes to be distinguished.56

  • 57 Hadfield, C. “‘Scouse not English’ goes viral as Merseyside remains defiant after the election”, (...)

36The embracing of the Scouse accent is of cultural interest but increased interest in ‘Scouseness’ is perhaps, because of the contextual effects on Merseyside, more political. Following Boris Johnson’s victory at the Brexit election of December 2019 #ScouseNotEnglish went viral on Twitter with the Echo informing its readers that “Merseyside remains defiant after the election” and that “Liverpool, [is] a city that should be a country in its own right”.57 The paper went on to state that Twitter users @sus1e31 and @jennwilliams10 tweeted respectively - “We will never forget how the Tories treated our beautiful city and people” and “The magic of Liverpool is that it isn’t England”.

  • 58 Hussain, D. “MPs condemn 'shameful' abuse after Prince William is BOOED by thousands of fans at W (...)

37 This proclamation of Scouse identity is not new, in May 2007 Liverpool football club fans unfurled a banner on which was written “WE ARE NOT ENGLISH WE ARE SCOUSE” and on 15th May 2022 the front page of the Mail on Sunday headlined ‘Anger as Liverpool cup final fans, boo William’ but there was also jeering at the National Anthem.58 When asked in August 2022, how they identified, 16.6% of respondents said they identified as ‘Scouse only’ and they had no affiliation or sense of belonging with either Britishness or Englishness.

38 Although on first reading the percentage may appear relatively low, it bears repeating that respondents who identified as ‘Scouse only’ affirmed having no English or British identity. As a comparison, a similar study conducted in January 2023 asked 385 residents of the port city of Kingston-upon-Hull if they identified as Hullian only. Those stating that they did not identify as English or British and as Hullian only was 1.8%.

Compositional Effects - The European Union

39 Voter choice in Liverpool is evidently not comprised of contextual effects alone with compositional effects also being prominent. One of those is the investment by the European Union into the region. Merseyside received €1.3 billion between 2001 and 2006 as part of urban regeneration, Objective One Structural Funds and during the second tranche, from 2007 to 2013, the region received €900 million. The Structural Funds

  • 59 Evans, R. (2002). “The Merseyside Objective One Programme: Exemplar of Coherent City-regional Pl (...)

empower sub-national institutions. In contrast to centrally-directed and controlled conventional regional policies, they are managed by broadly-based partnership structures based on negotiation and trust involving local and sub-regional, national and supra-national institutions.59

  • 60 Fleurke, F., & Willemse, R. (2007). “Effects of the European Union on Sub‐National Decision‐Makin (...)

40Some have argued that the structural funds enhance neo-functionalist integration at the European level.60 These financial investments through the European structural funds could be seen in opposition to the narrative of ‘managed’ Conservative decline, thus further fostering anti-tory sentiment.

41 Just over a year preceding the 2016 Brexit referendum, the Echo rather sarcastically, taking inspiration from the well-known joke “What have the Romans ever done for us?” made in the Monty Python film The Life of Brian, asked its readers - “what has the EU ever done for us?” and then went on to give a lengthy list of funding and investments for which residents would have quite a lot to be thankful for.61 62

  • 63 Bartlett, D. “So what has the European Union ever done for Merseyside?”, The Echo, 27th May 2014. (...)
  • 64 Murphy, L. “11 things that would not have happened in Merseyside without EU cash”, The Echo, 21st (...)

42 The 2015 article was but one in a line of pro-EU columns in the Echo newspaper. A 2014 article reminded readers that in 2009, former Liverpool Councillor Flo Clucas said “in 1994, something wonderful happened, we were given Objective 1 status. If we had not had it, my city would have gone into a decline and we would never have recovered”.63 In the run-up to the referendum, on 21st March 2016, Echo readers were again reminded of how the EU had helped the city with an article entitled “11 things that would not have happened in Merseyside without EU cash”; in the article, the then directly-elected mayor of Liverpool, Joe Anderson, is quoted as saying Europe “has stood by the Liverpool region, even when our national government didn’t.”64 The column inches and pro-European sentiment of the Echo clearly had a wide reach within the city as 45% of those questioned stated that they read a copy, whether that be a paper version or online, at least once a week in the run-up to the 2016 referendum.

  • 65 García, B. (2004). “Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration in Western European Cities: Lessons fr (...)
  • 66 Garcia et al., “Creating an impact: Liverpool’s experience as European Capital of Culture”, Impac (...)

43 In 2008 the city of Liverpool was the European Capital of Culture and was able to profit from urban regeneration through culture.65 Indeed, with over £4 billion invested in 300 major developments it is an undeniable fact that the city benefitted economically from hosting the event.66 The experience was an £800 million economic benefit to the Liverpool city region, with over 10,000 artists, 7000 events and more than 15 million people who attended a cultural event or attractions in the city. After the event, 79% of people thought that Liverpool was a city on the rise - the highest percentage of any UK city. Liverpool was also voted the U.K.’s third favourite city in 2008, after Edinburgh and London.

  • 67 “European capitals of culture: the road to success. From 1985 to 2010”, The European Commission, (...)

44 The economic benefits cannot be overstated but the European Capital of Culture program does not focus solely on economics. In the foreword of European Capital of Culture, the road to success from 1985 to 2010, the then Commission President J.M. Barroso wrote “The European Capitals of Culture are a flagship, cultural initiative of the European Union, possibly the best known and most appreciated by European citizens”, thus illustrating how culture played a central role in European development.67 The role of culture as a facilitator of Europeanisation was solidified when

  • 68 Katsarova, I, “European Capitals of Culture. In search of the perfect cultural event”, European P (...)

in 1992, culture was fully incorporated into the body of EU policies with the Maastricht Treaty (Article 128). This provided the legal basis for the European Capitals of Culture Community action, set up in 1999. Its aim was to 'highlight the richness and diversity of European cultures' and to 'promote greater mutual acquaintance between European citizens'.68

45 Europe being the other ‘other’ for the residents of Merseyside, it is not surprising that the respondents to the questionnaire answered extremely favourably to the following: “Was the ECoC, Liverpool ‘08 positive for this city?” with 91.5% of inhabitants replying that it was, the top three answers being firstly - increased tourism; secondly - urban regeneration and thirdly - new businesses and investment in the city. 81.5% of respondents said that their city is a European city.

Community Sentiment

  • 69 Munck, op cit
  • 70 architabanerjeeblog, “Towards a phenomenology of architecture by Christian Norberg Schulz”, A Wav (...)

46 Liverpool is clearly a city open to the world, an international city, a port city with ferries to Ireland, a city with European Union funded John Lennon Airport which has access to over 65 different destinations but despite this, it is nevertheless not a globalised city in the true sense of the word and in the same manner as London, New York or Paris.69 Liverpool is an Anywhere place but it is also a Somewhere place - a place with meaning. A meaningful place is somewhere that has a soul or a genius loci i.e. a distinctiveness and/or historical continuity that history and heritage help to define but which can change and adapt over time.70 A meaningful place has a deep and immutable essence and may be considered an ‘essentialist’ place with the word borrowed from biological terminology.

  • 71 Lewicka, M. et al (2019). “On the essentialism of places: Between conservative and progressive me (...)

By analogy, thinking of places in essentialist terms has led a number of scholars to use biological metaphors. For example, in an analogy to biological organisms, scholars talk about the “organic” development of places or about the DNA of a place, defined as a hidden resource that helps to maintain the identity of a place despite its constant changes.71

  • 72 Lickel, B., Hamilton, D. L., Wieczorkowska, G., Lewis, A., Sherman, S. J., & Uhles, A. N. (2000). (...)

47Another school of thought that may assist in better comprehending the societal bonds and social cohesion in Liverpool is the kin concept of ‘entitativity’ or the perception of a social unit as group.72 When interviewed, 65.1% of inhabitants strongly agreed that Liverpool was a community-minded place. Interviewees were also asked if they thought Liverpool was a welcoming place - 83.8% of respondents said that they strongly agreed.

  • 73 Campbell, D. T. (1958). “Common fate, similarity, and other indices of the status of aggregates o (...)

Groups perceived as high in entitativity score higher on similarity, proximity, common fate, and common goals, they have clear boundaries, and are better distinguishable from other groups than the groups that are attributed low entitativity.73

48Entitativity may bring to the fore faint thoughts of Tönnies’ Gemeinschaft and the community relationships thereof. In terms of Liverpool, the strong and strengthening Scouse accent, the Genius loci of the city and the othering of the place all create a strong sense of embeddedness or boundary. The contrast is stark when compared to Hull where lower levels of entitativity resulted in only 27.3% of inhabitants strongly agreeing that Hull is a community-minded place.

49In our globalised world, access to local news and attachment to local events in Liverpool remained high with, as has been mentioned above, 45% of respondents reporting they read the Echo at least once a week, whether that be the print edition or online; and 23.7% said they listen to independent local radio at least once a week. Although this figure may at first appear quite low, it is put into perspective when compared with the taste for local news by inhabitants of Hull, where only 8% of respondents listen to local radio on a weekly basis. Local news providers serve an essential role in

  • 74 Park, S. et al. (2022). “Regional news audiences’ value perception of local news”. Journalism, 23(...)

building community identity and cohesion by keeping citizens informed about local matters, covering community events, and advocating for the community. Local newspapers tend to be less sensational compared to national news and contains positive stories about the people living in the community. Local media serve communities, provide the opportunity for citizens to discuss and solve local problems and connect citizens in doing so.74

Conclusion

  • 75 Du Noyer, P. (2007). Liverpool wondrous place. Virgin Books. 2007.

50Liverpool’s identity is rooted in exceptionalism and according to Paul Du Noyer, exceptionalism only works if surrounded by authenticity.75 Liverpool’s Genius loci means that the city defines itself outside of external influence. That the people of Liverpool voted to remain in the European Union, that they did not vote for Brexit in the numbers that were expected should not be that surprising once local identity and sense of belonging have been taken into account.

51In the days following the referendum, writing in the New Statesman, Charles Leadbeater commented that

  • 76 Leadbeater, C, “The five ways the Left can win back the Leavers”, The New Statesman, 8th July 201 (...)

the Leave campaign was all about restoring a semblance of meaning to people’s lives, despite not having much money. As a vote for more than money - Leave was a vote for pride, for belonging, for community, for identity and for a sense of home.76

52The inhabitants of Liverpool had this pride - 90.3% of respondents strongly agreed that Liverpool was a city residents were proud of; the inhabitants had a sense of community; they also had a unique identity and they had the ontological security that comes from a sense of home and a sense of belonging. It may well be that some of the voters did not have “much money” - but the inhabitants of this ‘Somewhere’ city, this somewhat left-behind place, voted having made their choice based on values and identity rather than on economics.

53Returning to the early sociologists and their focus on urban socialisation, whereas once they looked at urbs in rure, when considering Liverpool and voter choice in this city then rure in urbs would perhaps be more befitting. The sense of community in the city, the gemeinschaftlich relationships and the heightened sense of belonging, due to acute contextual and compositional factors were key determinants in the higher than expected Remain vote in this urban village, this ‘Somewhere’ city.

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Notes

1 Lane, Tony. Liverpool: City of the Sea. Liverpool University Press, 1997

2 Jennings, W & Stoker, G. “Brexit and public opinion: cities and towns - the geography of discontent”, UK in a Changing Europe, 1st February 2019 https://ukandeu.ac.uk/brexit-and-public-opinion-cities-and-towns-the-geography-of-discontent/

3 McDermott, J. “England’s Liberal Cities”, The Financial Times, 27th January 2015. https://www.ft.com/content/d59a7efa-ece0-33ff-86e7-25a2a3ad7277

4 Wild, R. A. (1974). “Localities, Social Relationships, and the Rural-Urban Continuum”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 10(3), p. 170

5 Park, R. E. (1915). “The City: Suggestions for the Investigation of Human Behavior in the City Environment”. American Journal of Sociology, 20(5), 577-612. Wirth, L. (1938). “Urbanism as a Way of Life”. American Journal of Sociology, 44, No. 1, 1-24. Redfield, R. (1947). “The Folk Society”. American Journal of Sociology, 52, No. 4, 293-308.

6 urbs in rure - the town in the countryside/in a rural setting

7 Dewey, R. (1960). “The Rural-Urban Continuum: Real but Relatively Unimportant”. American Journal of Sociology, 66, No. 1, 60-66

8 Benet, F. (1963). “Sociology Uncertain: The Ideology of the Rural-Urban Continuum”. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 6(1), 1-23.

9 Pahl, R. E. (1966). “The Rural-Urban Continuum”. Sociologia Ruralis, 6(3), 299-329.

10 Frankenberg, R. Communities in Britain: Social Life in Town and Country. Penguin. 1966

11 Coleman, J. S. Foundations of Social Theory. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1990

12 Bell, M. M. (1992). “The Fruit of Difference: The Rural‐Urban Continuum as a System of Identity”. Rural Sociology, 57(1), 65-82.

13 Dorling, D. (2016). “Brexit: the decision of a divided country”. BMJ, 354, i3697; Harris, R., & Charlton, M. (2016). “Voting out of the European Union: Exploring the geography of Leave”. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 48(11), 2116-2128.

14 Morgan, D. H. J. (2005). “Revisiting ‘communities in Britain’”. The Sociological Review, 53(4), 641-657.

15 Evans, G., Stubager, R., & Langsæther, P. E. (2022). “The conditional politics of class identity: class origins, identity and political attitudes in comparative perspective”. West European Politics, 45(6), 1178-1205.

16 Clark, T. N., Lipset, S. M., & Rempel, M. (1993). “The declining political significance of social class”. International Sociology, 8(3), 293-316.

17 Goodhart, D. The Road to Somewhere - The New Tribes Shaping British Politics. Penguin. 2017. p. 59.

18 Ford, R., & Sobolewska, M. Brexitland. Cambridge University Press. 2020.

19 Lipset, S. M., & Rokkan, S. Cleavage Structures, Party Systems and Voter Alignments: An Introduction. Free Press. 1967.

20 Clark, T. N., & Lipset, S. M. (1991). “Are social classes dying?” International sociology, 6(4), 397-410.

21 O’Rourke, K. H., & Williamson, J. G. Globalization and history: the evolution of a nineteenth-century Atlantic economy. MIT Press. 1999.

22 Goodwin, M. J., & Heath, O. (2016). “The 2016 referendum, Brexit and the left behind: An aggregate‐level analysis of the result”. The Political Quarterly, 87(3), p. 331.

23 The Cosmopolitans and the Communitarians -Teney, C., Lacewell, O. P., & De Wilde, P. (2014). “Winners and losers of globalization in Europe: attitudes and ideologies”. European Political Science Review, 6(4), 575-595; The Globalists and the Nationalists - J. Scotto, T., Sanders, D., & Reifler, J. (2018). “The consequential Nationalist–Globalist policy divide in contemporary Britain: some initial analyses”. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 28(1), 38-58. The Road to Somewhere – Goodhart D., op cit.

24 Manley, D., Jones, K., & Johnston, R. (2017). “The geography of Brexit – What geography? Modelling and predicting the outcome across 380 local authorities”. Local Economy: The Journal of the Local Economy Policy Unit, 32(3), 183-203; Sykes, O. (2018). “Post-geography worlds, new dominions, left behind regions, and ‘other’ places: unpacking some spatial imaginaries of the UK’s ‘Brexit’ debate”. Space and Polity, 22(2), 137-161.

25 Johnston, R., Manley, D., Pattie, C., & Jones, K. (2018). “Geographies of Brexit and its aftermath: voting in England at the 2016 referendum and the 2017 general election”. Space and Polity, 22(2), p. 163

26 Kanagasooriam, J., & Simon, E. (2021). “Red Wall: The Definitive Description”. Political Insight, 12(3), 8-11.

27 @JamesKanag, 28th January 2021. “We’ve (@HanburyStrategy) calculated ward level EU Referendum estimates in England/Wales. Mapping 1000+ real results and 7000+ modelled ones. The picture by ward (RHS) shows a much more complex picture than local authority results (LHS) of Leave rural areas vs Remain cities. Retrieved from: https://twitter.com/jameskanag/status/1354580755117182979?s=61&t=Mgj5sA4YbQDZBOui6njkDw

28 Johnston, R et al, op cit

29 Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government. “The English Indices of Deprivation 2019” (IoD2019), statistical release 26th September 2019. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/835115/IoD2019_Statistical_Release.pdf

30 op cit

31 Twigger-Ross, C. L., & Uzzell, D. L. (1996). “Place and identity processes”. Journal of environmental psychology, 16(3), 205-220.

32 Agnew, J. Space: place. In A. Ni Mhurchu & R. Shindo (Eds.), Spaces of geographical thought (pp. 81-96). Sage London. 2005.

33 Shao, Y., Lange, E., Thwaites, K., & Liu, B. (2017). “Defining local identity”. Landscape Architecture Frontiers, 5(2), pg. 33

34 Relph, E. Place and Placelessness. Pion Limited. 1976.

35 Ford, R., & Goodwin, M. (2017). “Britain after Brexit: A nation divided”. Journal of Democracy, 28(1), p. 29

36 Casey, E. S., Body, Self and Landscape. A Geophilosophical Inquiry into the Place-World. In P. C. Adams, S. D. Hoelscher, & K. E. Till (Eds.), Textures of Place: Exploring Humanist Geographies. University of Minnesota Press. 2001. p. 403

37 Casey, E.S., op cit

38 Notes and Queries section, “Why are people from Liverpool called scousers? Is it an insulting term or do Liverpudlians refer to themselves as scousers?” The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/notesandqueries/query/0,5753,-6353,00.html. Scouse is an adjective used for those people who live in or hail from Liverpool. https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/scouse

39 Deffner, A., & Metaxas, T. (2007). Place marketing, local identity and cultural planning: The CultMark INTERREG IIIc project. Discus Pap. Ser, 13, 367-380

40 “Project synopsis for Liverpool and Empire, 1700-1970”. The University of Liverpool. https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/home/ahzsh1/Empire/Project.htm

41 Munck, R. Reinventing the City?: Liverpool In Comparative Perspective. Liverpool University Press. 2003.

42 Kelly, L. “Irish Migration to Liverpool and Lancashire in the Nineteenth Century”, The University of Warwick, 18th June 2014. https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/history/chm/outreach/migration/backgroundreading/migration/

43 McSweeney, D. “Liverpool’s Orange lodges and the parading season”, The Guardian, 21st June 2012. https://www.theguardian.com/uk/the-northerner/2012/jun/21/liverpool-northernireland

44 Surridge, P. (2021). “Brexit, British politics and values”, UK in a changing Europe, 30th January 2021. https://ukandeu.ac.uk/long-read/brexit-british-politics-and-values/

45 Thrift, N. J. (1983). On the Determination of Social Action in Space and Time. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 1(1), 23-57.

46 Jeffery, D. Whatever happened to Tory Liverpool?: Success, decline, and irrelevance since 1945. Liverpool University Press. 2023

47 “Thatcher urged ‘Let Liverpool Decline’ after 1981 riots” BBC News, 30th December 2011. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-16361170

48 Parker, S. “The Leaving of Liverpool: managed decline and the enduring legacy of Thatcherism’s urban policy”. London School of Economics, 17th January 2019. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/the-leaving-of-liverpool/

49 Jeffrey, D. op cit p. 210

50 Pocock, D., Charles, D., & Hudson, R. Images of the Urban Environment. Macmillan. 1978. p. 111

51 Shields, R. Places on the Margin: Alternative Geographies of Modernity. Routledge. 1991. p. 207

52 Jewell, J. “Finally the truth about Hillsborough (but you won’t read it on the front of The Sun)”, The Conversation, 27th April 2016. https://theconversation.com/finally-the-truth-about-hillsborough-but-you-wont-read-it-on-the-front-of-the-sun-58529

53 Vainikka, J. (2013). “The role of identity for regional actors and citizens in a splintered region: The case of Päijät-Häme, Finland”. Fennia – International Journal of Geography, 25-39.

54 Smith, B. “Estuary English in the 21st century”. DialectBlog, 4th June 2011. http://dialectblog.com/2011/06/04/estuary-english/

55 Juskan, M. (2015). Selective accent revival in Liverpool. Linguistisches Internationales Promotionsprogramms LIPP

56 LePage, R.B., and Tabouret-Keller, A. Acts of identity: Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Cambridge University Press. 1985. Pg. 181

57 Hadfield, C. “‘Scouse not English’ goes viral as Merseyside remains defiant after the election”, The Echo, 15th December 2019. https://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/scouse-not-english-how-merseyside-17420602

58 Hussain, D. “MPs condemn 'shameful' abuse after Prince William is BOOED by thousands of fans at Wembley ahead of the FA Cup Final between Liverpool and Chelsea - with supporters also jeering renditions of God Save the Queen and Abide With Me”, The Mail on Sunday, 14th May 2022. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-10816643/Prince-William-BOOED-Wembley-crowd-FA-Cup-Final.html

59 Evans, R. (2002). “The Merseyside Objective One Programme: Exemplar of Coherent City-regional Planning and Governance or Cautionary Tale”. European Planning Studies, 10(4), p. 497.

60 Fleurke, F., & Willemse, R. (2007). “Effects of the European Union on Sub‐National Decision‐Making: Enhancement or Constriction. Journal of European Integration”, 29(1), 69-88; Hooghe, L., Marks, G., & Schakel, A. H. The Rise of Regional Authority: A Comparative Study of 42 Democracies. Routledge. 2010; Dąbrowski, M. (2014). “EU cohesion policy, horizontal partnership and the patterns of sub-national governance: Insights from Central and Eastern Europe”. European Urban and Regional Studies, 21(4), 364-383.

61 The Life of Brian [Film], Jones, T., 1979. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qc7HmhrgTuQ

62 Bartlett, D. “European Union referendum: what has the EU ever done for us?”, The Echo, 8th May 2015. https://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/european-union-referendum-what-eu-9218531

63 Bartlett, D. “So what has the European Union ever done for Merseyside?”, The Echo, 27th May 2014. https://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/what-european-union-ever-done-7175124

64 Murphy, L. “11 things that would not have happened in Merseyside without EU cash”, The Echo, 21st March 2016. https://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/11-things-would-not-happened-11069111

65 García, B. (2004). “Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration in Western European Cities: Lessons from Experience, Prospects for the Future”. Local Economy: The Journal of the Local Economy Policy Unit, 19(4), 312-326

66 Garcia et al., “Creating an impact: Liverpool’s experience as European Capital of Culture”, Impacts ‘08 - University of Liverpool & Liverpool John Moore University, 2010. https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/media/livacuk/impacts08/pdf/pdf/Creating_an_Impact_-_web.pdf

67 “European capitals of culture: the road to success. From 1985 to 2010”, The European Commission, 2009.

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69 Munck, op cit

70 architabanerjeeblog, “Towards a phenomenology of architecture by Christian Norberg Schulz”, A Wave of Verticals. Stories, Thoughts and Reviews, 20th March 2016. https://architabanerjeeblog.wordpress.com/2016/03/20/genius-loci-towards-a-phenomenology-of-architecture-by-christian-norberg-schulz/

71 Lewicka, M. et al (2019). “On the essentialism of places: Between conservative and progressive meanings”. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 65. p. 2

72 Lickel, B., Hamilton, D. L., Wieczorkowska, G., Lewis, A., Sherman, S. J., & Uhles, A. N. (2000). “Varieties of groups and the perception of group entitativity”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 223-246

73 Campbell, D. T. (1958). “Common fate, similarity, and other indices of the status of aggregates of persons as social entities”. Behavioral Science, 3(1), 14-25. as read in Lewicka et al., 2019 Op cit. p. 4

74 Park, S. et al. (2022). “Regional news audiences’ value perception of local news”. Journalism, 23(8). p. 1165.

75 Du Noyer, P. (2007). Liverpool wondrous place. Virgin Books. 2007.

76 Leadbeater, C, “The five ways the Left can win back the Leavers”, The New Statesman, 8th July 2016. https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2016/07/five-ways-left-can-win-back-leavers

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Mark Kay, « This Somewhere, this Anywhere - this Liverpool »Observatoire de la société britannique, 30 | 2023, 217-238.

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Mark Kay, « This Somewhere, this Anywhere - this Liverpool »Observatoire de la société britannique [En ligne], 30 | 2023, mis en ligne le 01 janvier 2024, consulté le 18 juin 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/osb/6155 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/osb.6155

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Mark Kay

Doctorant en civilisation britannique à l’Université Sorbonne Nouvelle

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