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Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Skinning

Defleshing

Disarticulation, removal of tendons

MACRO-TRACES

position

bifacial

bifacial

bifacial

 

size

very small or small

small to medium

small to medium, sometimes large (fractures)

 

number

variable (<10 and 10-20)

few (between <5 and 5-10)

variable (<10 to 20-30)

 

distribution

discontinuous

discontinuous

discontinuous

 Scarring

arrangement

aligned or isolated

aligned or isolated

aligned or isolated

 

morphology

semi-circular (half-moon, triangular, transverse fractures)

semi-circular (triangular, transverse fractures)

semi-circular, triangular (half-moon, burin fractures)

 

direction

oblique and perpendicular

oblique and perpendicular

oblique and perpendicular

 

initiation

bending

bending

bending and cone

 

angle

shallow

shallow

shallow

 

termination

feather, step or transverse

feather, step, transverse

step, feather, and transverse

Rounding

intensity

very weak to weak

absent

absent or weak / weak

Remarks

the intensity of rounding and the number of scars increases with duration of use

 

- rounding occurs if also used in skinning
- number and morphology of scars depend on the duration of use and type of articulation (cases of few contacts with bone produce scars similar to defleshing scars)

MICRO-TRACES

 

 

 

distribution

discontinuous

-

discontinuous / -

 Micro-polish

extent

invasive

-

marginal to moderate

 

brightness

intense, greasy aspect

-

intense, greasy aspect

 

coalescence

rough and soft

-

rough and soft

- on matrix

yes

no

yes

- on crystals

yes

no

no

Rounding

weak

no

no

Striations

rare, oblique and parallel

present, oblique and parallel

present, oblique and parallel

- on matrix

no

no

no

- on crystals

yes

yes

yes

distribution of the erosion

continuous, all over

isolated and continuous

isolated and continuous

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

regular and fine

regular and fine

variable

 

scars

rare and small, oblique

rare and small, oblique

frequents, sometimes large, oblique

 

continuous breakage?

frequent

absent

absent

Remarks

crystals with a bright (polished) aspect

crystals with a rough and dull aspect

 

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Defleshing of fresh hide, tangential motion (longitudinal)

Defleshing of fresh hide, positive rake (transverse)

MACRO-TRACES

position

bifacial

absent

 

size

small to medium

-

 

number

rare (<5 and 5-10)

-

 

distribution

discontinuous

-

 Scars

arrangement

aligned or isolated

-

 

morphology

semi-circular or half-moon

-

 

direction

oblique and perpendicular

-

 

initiation

bending

-

 

angle

shallow

-

 

termination

feather

-

Rounding

intensity

medium to strong

medium to strong

Remarks

 

shine and perpendicular orientation of wear visible at this scale

MICRO-TRACES

 

 

distribution

discontinuous

continuous

 Micro-polish

extent

moderate

invasive

 

brightness

intermediate

intermediate

 

coalescence

rough and soft

rough and soft

- on matrix

yes

yes

- on crystals

yes

yes, after erosion

Rounding

intermediate

intense

Striations

rare, oblique and parallel

present, fairly long, wide, and deep

- on matrix

no

yes

- on crystals

yes

yes

distribution of the erosion

continuous all over

continuous all over

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

regular and fine

regular and fine to moderate

 

scars

rare and small, oblique

absent

 

continue breakage?

present

frequent

Remarks

- very extensive erosion of the crystals, strong polish and rounding as in the matrix, continuity
- crystals nearly completely gone, rarely visible and eroded
- more or less shiny surface appearance, fairly clear polish

 

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Removal of periosteum (scraping of bone)

MACRO-TRACES

 

position

unifacial

 

size

small to medium

 

number

moderate to numerous (10-20, 30-40, >60)

 

distribution

continuous

 Scars

arrangement

aligned or superimposed

 

morphology

semi-circular

 

direction

perpendicular

 

initiation

bending + cone or undetermined

 

angle

shallow, semi-abrupt, abrupt

 

termination

feather or step

Rounding

intensity

sometimes rounding related to crushing

Remarks

- rounding (dull aspect) forms after a certain duration of use and depending on the type of bone (lamb: absent up to 10 min, only observed from20 min /cow: crushing from 13 min)
- lamb: few traces (fewer scars, more shallow, aligned, little crushing) while cow showed more developed traces (> 60 scars, superimposed, sometimes abrupt, crushing producing a rounding effect)

MICRO-TRACES

 

distribution

discontinuous

Micro-polish

extent

marginal

 

brightness

intense, glossy aspect

 

coalescence

smooth with undulations

- on matrix

yes

- on crystals

yes

Rounding

 

no

Striations

 

rare, perpendicular or oblique, mostly wide and of variable length, deep or superficial

- on matrix

yes (within polish)

- on crystals

yes

distribution of the erosion

isolated and continuous (can be rare)

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

fairly irregular, moderately fine, sometimes deep

 

scars

very frequent, perpendicular, often continuous, sometimes superimposed and/or of large in size (mostly on trailing face)

 

continue breakage?

rare

Remarks

- on the edge, crystals removed by erosion (especially on the leading face) or clearly present, sometimes only scarred (on leading and trailing face but mostly on trailing face), sometimes polished (on leading face)
- sometimes polish directly on crystals without erosion: on the edge of the leading face, crystals surrounded by smooth polish

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Defleshing by scraping of bone

MACRO-TRACES

position

unifacial

 

size

small to medium

 

number

numerous (>50)

 

distribution

continuous

 Scars

arrangement

aligned and sometimes superimposed (+ crushing)

 

morphology

semi-circular

 

direction

perpendicular

 

initiation

bending and undetermined: obscured by crushing

 

angle

variable: shallow, semi-abrupt to abrupt

 

termination

variable: feather, step, transverse

Rounding

intensity

sometimes rounding related to crushing

Remarks

rounding probably depends on the duration of use, because on one piece used for 10 min there is very little crushing even though it was used on cow bone

MICRO-TRACES

 

distribution

-

 Micro-polish

extent

-

 

brightness

-

 

coalescence

-

- on matrix

no

- on crystals

no

Rounding

no

Striations

present, perpendicular

- on matrix

no

- on crystals

yes

distribution of the erosion

isolated and continuous

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

variable, sometimes deep

 

scars

presents, continuous, perpendicular and sometimes superimposed

 

continue breakage?

absent

Remarks

perhaps some few and dispersed spots of polish from bone (smooth and glossy aspect, marginal extent)

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Scraping dry bone

MACRO-TRACES

 

position

unifacial

 

size

small to medium

 

number

fairly numerous (40)

 

distribution

continuous

 Scars

arrangement

aligned or superimposed

 

morphology

semi-circular

 

direction

perpendicular

 

initiation

bending + cone or undetermined

 

angle

shallow, semi-abrupt, abrupt

 

termination

feather or step

Rounding

intensity

rounding related to crushing

MICRO-TRACES

 

distribution

discontinuous

 Micro-polish

extent

marginal to moderate

 

brightness

intense, glossy aspect

 

coalescence

smooth with undulations

- on matrix

yes

- on crystals

no

Rounding

no

Striations

very frequent, perpendicular or oblique (rarely parallel), wide and long, deep, organised in subparallel or secants groups, abrasive

- on matrix

yes

- on crystals

yes

distribution of the erosion

isolated and continuous

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

irregular, fairly large, sometimes deep

 

scars

presents, perpendicular, sometimes superimposed and/or of large size, step termination

 

continue breakage?

rare

Remarks

- striations predominate, especially on the trailing face while polish forms on the leading face
- no polish clearly visible on the crystals, probably because the erosion and striations are well developed, affecting the crystals before polish could occur

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Stripping of dry hide (scraping)

Cutting of dry hide

MACRO-TRACES

position

-

bifacial

 

size

-

small to medium

 

number

-

variable (<5 to 20-30)

 

distribution

-

discontinuous

 Scars

arrangement

-

isolated and aligned

 

morphology

-

semi-circular, triangular, half-moon and trapezoidal

 

direction

-

oblique and perpendicular

 

initiation

-

bending

 

angle

-

shallow

 

termination

-

feather and step

Rounding

intensity

moderate

weak to moderate

Remarks

brightness and sometimes macro-striations perpendicular to the edge associated with rounding

number and type of scars and intensity of rounding depend on the hardness and state of the hide and the type of edge

MICRO-TRACES

 

 

distribution

continuous

absent or discontinuous

 Micro-polish

extent

moderate

moderate

 

brightness

weak

weak to intermediate

 

coalescence

rough and soft

rough and soft

- on matrix

yes

yes

- on crystals

yes

yes, after erosion

Rounding

moderate to strong

weak to moderate

Striations

fairly frequent, perpendicular

fairly rare, parallel or oblique

- on matrix

yes

no

- on crystals

yes

yes

distribution of the erosion

mainly continuous

isolated and continuous

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

regular and fine to fairly large

regular and moderately fine to fine

 

scars

no

very rare, discontinuous and oblique

 

continue breakage?

frequent

present

Remarks

- erosion dominant (scarcity of crystals along the edge), discrete polish
- rough and dull appearance of the crystals

- intense erosion that dominates polish, rarely clearly identifiable, scarcity of crystals along the edge and the cutting edge
- rough and dull appearance of the eroded crystals and of the matrix in continuity
- true striations are rare but the orientation of the erosion and the polish is parallel

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Perforation of dry hide

MACRO-TRACES

position

bifacial

 

size

small to medium

 

number

few (<10)

 

distribution

discontinuous

 Scars

arrangement

isolated and aligned

 

morphology

semi-circular, quadrangular, transverse fractures

 

direction

oblique and perpendicular

 

initiation

bending

 

angle

shallow and abrupt (fractures)

 

termination

feather, step, transverse

Rounding

intensity

(very) weak

Remarks

few, but use was very brief as the active zone was not very effective (2 min)

MICRO-TRACES

 

distribution

discontinuous

 Micro-polish

extent

moderate

 

brightness

weak

 

coalescence

rough and soft

- on matrix

yes

- on crystals

yes

Rounding

moderate

Striations

rare, short, moderately wide, deep, perpendicular

- on matrix

yes

- on crystals

yes

distribution of the erosion

mainly continuous

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

moderately regular and moderately fine to fine

 

scars

no

 

continue breakage?

present

Remarks

 

- intense erosion dominates, crystals rarely present along the edge or intensely eroded but the edge is less regularised than is common with scraping
- rough and dull appearance of the eroded crystals and of the matrix in continuity
- true striations are rare but the orientation of the erosion and the polish is perpendicular to the sides of the point

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Perforation of wood

Perforation of bone

MACRO-TRACES

position

bifacial

bifacial

 

size

medium

small to medium

 

number

rare (10-20)

rare (fewer than 10)

 

distribution

discontinuous

discontinuous

 Scars

arrangement

isolated and aligned

aligned

 

morphology

semi-circular

semi-circular and trapezoidal

 

direction

perpendicular

oblique and perpendicular

 

initiation

undetermined

undetermined

 

angle

shallow to abrupt

shallow to semi-abrupt

 

termination

feather or step

feather or step

Rounding

intensity

weak to moderate

weak to intense (extremity)

Remarks

- scars are rare but the point is robust (around 65°)
- rounding on the distal end and on the central ridge

rounding due to repeated, intense crushing at the tip of the point

MICRO-TRACES

 

 

distribution

discontinuous

-

 Micro-polish

extent

marginal to moderate

-

 

brightness

intense

-

 

coalescence

rough and soft to hard rounded (but rare)

-

- on matrix

yes

no

- on crystals

yes

no

Rounding

yes, at the extremity

no

Striations

fairly rare, in subparallel groups, long, wide and deep, abrasives

absent

- on matrix

yes

no

- on crystals

yes

no

distribution of the erosion

continuous all over

isolated and continuous

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

fairly regular and fine to large

irregular and fairly large

 

scars

few, of small size, perpendicular, semi-circular or quadrangular

present, fairly numerous

 

continue breakage?

rare

absent

Remarks

- at the distal end, crushing related to intensive erosion removed nearly all of the crystals, but the topography is irregular (unlike hide)
- coarse erosion at the distal end could be related to the presence of scars at the base of the hole

- microscopic wear dominated by erosion, notably at the distal extremity (but limited elsewhere as unaltered crystals are numerous) and scars : not very diagnostic

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Sawing of wood

Sawing of horn

MACRO-TRACES

position

bifacial

bifacial

 

size

small to large

medium to large

 

number

moderately numerous (20-30)

moderate (10-20)

 

distribution

discontinuous

discontinuous

 Scars

arrangement

isolated and aligned

aligned

 

morphology

semi-circular, half-moon, transverse fractures

semi-circular, triangular, transverse fractures

 

direction

oblique and perpendicular

oblique and perpendicular

 

initiation

bending

bending and cone

 

angle

semi-abrupt, abrupt or shallow

semi-abrupt, sometimes shallow and abrupt

 

termination

feather, transverse, step

feather, step, transverse

Rounding

intensity

related to crushing of variable intensity

-

Remarks

rounding is more pronounced in the case of sawing of acacia, which is harder than hazel and rowan

- absence of crushing/rounding though use of the same duration (12 min) on bone produced extensive crushing
- little scarring because of short cutting edges and limited duration

MICRO-TRACES

 

 

distribution

absent or discontinuous

discontinuous

 Micro-polish

extent

moderate

marginal

 

brightness

intense

intense

 

coalescence

smooth and domed

smooth and domed or with undulations

- on matrix

yes

yes

- on crystals

yes

no

Rounding

no or weak to moderate

absent

Striations

frequent, wide, deep, and mainly parallel (numerous parallel but also oblique and sometimes perpendicular)

present, wide, fairly deep, fairly long, parallel, reducing the crystals in strips, often parallel or oblique

- on matrix

no

no

- on crystals

yes

yes

distribution of the erosion

isolated and continuous all over

continuous all over

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

fairly irregular and moderately fine

irregular and fairly large

 

scars

rare

present, discontinuous, oblique or perpendicular, sometimes of large size or superimposed

 

continue breakage?

absent or rare

absent

Remarks

- erosion, substantial, more developped than polish
- fairly intense brightness of the eroded crystals and of the matrix related to polish
- striations are a bit irregular in width (elongated erosion or true striations cutting the crystals into irregular strips)

- minimal erosion, present on exposed zones along the edge (very discontinuous), irregular. Polish sometimes in these zones
- along the edge crystals often intact or scarred on their edges
- micro-traces are weak, probably due to the fact that the cutting edge has a fair amount of macro-scars and was used for only a short period of time

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Incision / sawing of bone

MACRO-TRACES

position

bifacial

 

size

small to medium

 

number

moderate (10-20)

 

distribution

discontinuous

 Scars

arrangement

isolated or aligned (rarely superimposed)

 

morphology

semi-circular, trapezoidal, triangular

 

direction

oblique

 

initiation

bending and undetermined

 

angle

shallow, semi-abrupt, abrupt

 

termination

step, feather, rarely transverse

Rounding

intensity

weak to moderate

Remarks

- size and number of scars reduced, but nevertheless clearly organized alternately on both faces (bull bone)
- following the scars that stabilise the cutting edge, wear is principally rounding by crushing (blunting)

MICRO-TRACES

 

distribution

discontinuous

 Micro-polish

extent

marginal

 

brightness

intense

 

coalescence

smooth with undulations

- on matrix

yes

- on crystals

yes

Rounding

no

Striations

rare (fairly superficial, fine, and moderately long, parallel, abrasive) to numerous (long, wide and deep-more rarely fine and more superficial- probably abrasive and additive, often oblique but also parallel and perpendicular)

- on matrix

sometimes

- on crystals

yes

distribution of the erosion

isolated and continuous

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

irregular and fairly large

 

scars

present, discontinuous, oblique or perpendicular often isolated

 

continue breakage?

absent

Remarks

- striations dominate the wear on certain pieces, but sometimes they are much more rare.Variations can be related to the type of activity (presence of quartzite chips in grooves for example?) or related to differnt types of quartzite (fine black grains vs medium brown grains?) or striations are more rare on fresh bone (thaumathrope) but wide and deep
- no polish clearly documented but possible spots on exposed zones preserved along the edge, on ridges of rare crystals or on irregular rounded zones entirely eroded along the edge (gloss
of that of the crystals)

Descriptions of macro- and micro-traces observed on the quartzite flakes, according to their mode of use

Digging in earth

Cutting grasses

MACRO-TRACES

position

bifacial

bifacial

 

size

medium

small to medium

 

number

rare (<10)

moderately numerous (20-30)

 

distribution

discontinuous

discontinuous

 Scars

arrangement

isolated or aligned

isolated or aligned

 

morphology

semi-circular

semi-circular, half-moon, trapezoidal

 

direction

oblique and perpendicular

oblique

 

initiation

cone and undetermined

bending

 

angle

mainly semi-abrupt

shallow to semi-abrupt

 

termination

feather, step

feather, step, transverse

Rounding

intensity

strong

weak

Remarks

wear characterized mainly by pronounced rounding, invasive to covering, associated with some scars

weak rounding related to light crushing associated with scars, regularising the edge

MICRO-TRACES

 

 

distribution

discontinuous

discontinuous

 Micro-polish

extent

covering (point)

marginal (matrix) to moderate (crystals)

 

brightness

moderate

strong

 

coalescence

rough and soft

smooth and domed

- on matrix

yes

yes (less developed)

- on crystals

yes

yes

Rounding

yes, strong on crystals and matrix

absent to moderate, due to presence of domed polish

Striations

rare (<10), in the form of linear erosion on les crystals

fairly rare, short, punctuated (linear erosion), moderately deep and wide

- on matrix

no

no

- on crystals

yes

yes

distribution of the erosion

isolated but mainly continuous

isolated and continuous but rare

 Wear of crystals

type of erosion

fairly irregular, large

fairly irregular, moderately wide

 

scars

rare, sometimes of large size

frequent, oblique or perpendicular, fairly small, often aligned and even superimposed

 

continue breakage?

very frequent

very rare

Remarks

very strong erosion associated with rounding, covering wear

- characteristic wear on crystals and not on matrix
- erosion is rare but striations, scars and polish are characteristic

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« Annex 2 », Palethnologie [En ligne], 10 | 2019, mis en ligne le 01 novembre 2019, consulté le 16 décembre 2019. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/palethnologie/5634

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