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Bilingual Poetry Readings as a Problematics: Five Case Studies

Clíona Ní Ríordáin
p. 189-202


Cet article est consacré aux lectures de poésie bilingue et à la place occupée par le texte traduit dans de telles manifestations. À travers l’analyse de cinq études de cas, l’article démontre qu’une problématique spécifique du texte traduit existe, déterminée en grande partie par l’oralité inhérente aux lectures bilingues. La lecture en langue minoritaire et la cohabitation difficile entre langue minoritaire/minorisée et langue majoritaire dans un tel cadre fait l’objet d’une étude détaillée.

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1This article addresses the phenomenon of bilingual poetry readings and looks at the status of the translated text within that setting. Attendance and participation at such events has encouraged me to reflect on the function and purpose of poetry readings in general and has led me to believe that the features characteristic of a bilingual poetry reading may constitute a specific problematics determined by both the orality and the transitory nature of the reading. Through the study of a number of different bilingual poetry readings, where in each case the reception of the translated text is different, I will explore the key features of bilingual poetry readings. In so doing, I hope to move from specific, and necessarily experience-based observations, towards a description of the variables that emerge from the aesthetic and interpretative choices made by those involved in bilingual poetry readings (poets, translators, festival organisers). In what follows, I will refer to the context of the reading (formal readings in theatres/lecture halls; free public readings in open air spaces), and their impact on the delivery and reception of the texts. I will highlight the notion of sequence and décalage in a reading, suggesting that these elements may also affect the reception of the translated text. It is important to underline the fact that this article does not propose to undertake comparative analyses of the different translations presented in bilingual poetry readings, rather the focus is placed firmly on the status and reception of the translated text. Any remarks made with regard to the translations are to be viewed from this perspective. The five case studies that I present address the relationship between the original poem and the translated text, the place and function of the translation in the various settings in which they are read, and the role of the translator in such a context; the final case study examines the particular issues arising from minority language poetry readings. In analysing all the variables that emerge from the study, I will offer some thoughts and tentative conclusions on the subject.

The poetry reading as genre

2“De la musique avant toute chose”, the first line of Paul Verlaine’s poem, “Art poétique”, reminds us of the essential orality of most forms of poetry. Today, it is in the space allowed by a poetry reading that a poet can abandon the page and the audience can return to the auditory quality of the poem, to the voice of the poet. The poetry reading is thus a means to renew the connection with the spoken word; it also crystallizes the attention of the audience on the auditory quality of poetry. Unlike the recorded mechanical equivalent, where the capacity for reproduction and repetition comes into play, a bilingual poetry-reading, in its original intent, is a transitory moment, an encounter between an audience and the poet. For there’s the rub: is a poetry reading, despite its appellation, about the poetry or the poet? What implications may that have as to the place of the translated text and the translator?

3Let us consider for a moment the presence of the poet as originator of the spoken word, the transformer of the written page into the read poem. In his essay, “The Formal Poetry Reading”, Frederick C. Stern gives an account of a poetry reading by Alan Dugan, a glittering prize-winning poet (Pulitzer Prize, National Book Award, Yale Younger Poets): “The voice is hoarse, hardly audible, barely understandable, but heard—the audience is focussed as in the quiet moments just before a string quartet’s recital.” (Stern, 1991: 67-84) Stern describes Dugan as taking requests, drinking shots of bourbon with an audience of varied age groups, some of whom “must have been babies when the poems were written” (ibid.: 67). Elsewhere, Stern evokes the memories of other poetry readings, particularly moving is his comments on the poet William Everson. His voice is described as creakier than usual, the elderly poet is suffering from Parkinson’s, and suddenly the reading stops, the poet’s head droops: “I pay no more attention to the words for the rest of the reading. It is the man, the courage, the determination of him that I observe.” (ibid.: 69)

4As Stern suggests the presence of the living poet is almost totemic, s/he is the embodiment of the poem and the vessel or sounding box in which it resonates. Roland Barthes, in Le grain de la voix, reminds us of the power of the spoken word. He evokes the shift in emphasis when one moves from the spoken word to the printed page: “Transcrite, la parole change évidemment de destinataire, et par là même de sujet car il n’est pas de sujet sans Autre.” (Barthes, 1981: 11) In what follows, Barthes highlights the fact that the moment of orality also includes the physical body of the speaker in a space that is more theatrical, more visual, more corporeal than the encounter between the reader and the page in the silent intimacy of the act of private reading.

5The voice of the poet also brings the vibrant sounds of the poems to life, for, as Charles Bernstein underlines in his groundbreaking introductory essay to the book Close Listening:

Unsounded poetry remains inert marks on a page, waiting to be able to be called into use by saying, or hearing, the words aloud. The poetry reading provides a focal point for this process in that its existence is uniquely tied to the reading aloud of the text; it is an emblem of the necessity for such reading out loud and in public. (Bernstein, 1998: 7)

6The public’s understanding of the poem is transformed as a result of hearing the poet read his/her text as the reading adds an extra layer, or dimension, to the poetic experience ensuring the completeness of the poetic act.

7Yet, as Naeem Murr has suggested in her tongue-in-cheek account “Poetry Readings: A Field Guide”, the recitation of the poetry and the encounter with the poet mean that the event may also take on an almost shamanistic aspect, with the audience allowing the sound waves to wash over them (Murr 2004: 221-226). Poetry reading can thus also be seen as a moment of communion, which, responding to what Donna Brook suggests in her poem “Giving Poetry Readings”, lies at the heart of all poetry readings: “and then what you’ve always wanted/in the way of magical and communal and possessed” (Brook 2000: 42).

8Bilingual poetry readings also facilitate the access to the poet, and not just to the poetry in a realm outside the spatial remit of the poet’s original language zone. The bilingual reading, with the presence of two voices and two languages, highlights the ontological ambiguity of the translated text. How does the place and time of enunciation affect our reception and comprehension of the translated text?

Case Study 1: Celebratory Bilingual Poetry Reading of Internationally Recognized Poet, or When a Bilingual Poetry Reading is Not Bilingual

9The reception of the work of a poet of renown warrants a section to itself because the work and the figure of the poet have set him/her apart. The listening public is usually familiar with the work of the poet in question and the reading is not a moment of discovery, rather it is a moment of confirmation, an encounter with the living poet. My first case study examines Seamus Heaney’s poetry reading at the Centre Culturel Irlandais in Paris on 13 June 20131. The poet read for 30 minutes at what was to be his last public reading in France; he died later that summer on 30 August. His readings were interspersed with readings of the translations of poems, and while some of his translators (notably Patrick Hersant) were present, they did not read their translations. Nor were the translations read in sequence—three or four poems in translation were read, at intervals, by an actor; he had instructions to read them in a low-wattage fashion. At no point was the actor to substitute himself for the poet, at no point were the translations offered as equivalents of the originals. Rather the translations were offered as openings, brief soundscapes for the francophone public of the great poet, the encounter for the non-anglophone public was therefore entirely of an auditory, incantatory nature. The status of the translated text was ambiguous in this context. Many excellent translations of Seamus Heaney’s poems exist in French but the setting of the Centre Culturel Irlandais and Heaney’s standing as a Nobel Prize-winning poet, meant that the translations were offered as symbolic gifts to the French public. The style of delivery of the translations and the interspersed placing of the translations was the choice of the director of the Centre Culturel, Sheila Pratschke, who was determined that the focus for the evening was to be on Seamus Heaney himself. In this particular case we can ask if the event itself can be qualified as a bilingual poetry reading, as no attempt was made to create an equivalence between the original and the translated texts? Perhaps in this instance, the presence of the poet was equivalent to any translation that could be offered and his reading was seen as that which Benjamin calls the essence; thus access to the meaning of the spoken text was not deemed necessary for, as in Benjamin’s terms: “the authenticity of a thing is the essence of all that is transmissible from its beginning, ranging from its substantive duration to its testimony to the history which it has experienced” (Benjamin, 1968: 221).

Case Study 2: Recognized Poet and Launch of Publication

  • 2 . Vidya Vencatesan is Professor of French at the University of Mumbai and editor of Synergies-Inde(...)
  • 3 . Christine Raguet is Professor Emerita at Paris 3-Sorbonne Nouvelle, director of Palimpsestes, an (...)

10In another example, Javed Akhtar, the celebrated Indian poet, gave a bilingual poetry reading (Urdu/French) at the Indian Embassy in Paris on 12 November 2014, with his translator Vidya Vencatesan2. Akhtar is renowned on the Indian subcontinent for his poetry and is also an acclaimed songwriter and scriptwriter, the author of many celebrated Bollywood films. His poetry is less well-known in Europe and the reading in Paris marked the launch of the trilingual edition (Urdu, Hindi, French) of Akhtar’s poems published by the editions Janus under the title D’autres mondes (translated by Vidya Vencatesan with the collaboration of Christine Raguet3). While the public was not entirely urdophone there was a large number of Urdu speakers present in the room. This had a tremendous influence on the reception of the original text. The urdophone audience laughed, chanted responses and sometimes clapped before the recitation of the poem was finished. Their presence meant that the décalage in the reception of the translations underlined the secondary and subsidiary nature of these texts. This notion of the translations as facilitating access to the originals was confirmed by the presentation of the event made by the translator, Vidya Vencatesan, and the comments she made underlining the challenging nature of the act of translation and her desire to honour the originals.

11The reading was repeated the following day (on 13 November 2014) in the Grand Amphithéâtre of the Institut du Monde Anglophone, Université Sorbonne Nouvelle. This time the urdophone public was absent. The reading followed the same format but the poet also commented on individual poems (in English) for the benefit of the audience. Most interestingly of all, in the discussion that followed the reading, Akhtar made hand gestures to illustrate the effect of the rhythm and cadence of the original form. Akhtar’s reading meant that the status of the original text was never in any doubt while the addition of the hand-movements to convey the rhythmic dimension of the poems also underlined the fact that the translations were primarily vehicles for conveying sense and not rhythm.

Case Study 3: Discovery Poetry Reading

12By discovery poetry reading we are to understand that the audience is unfamiliar with the work they are going to hear. The poet reads from his/her work, sequential readings of the translations are provided by actors, and the translations that are read are commissioned for the reading.

13When the language of the poetry reading is a majority language, like English, the reception of the reading by the poet is confirmed by the translation. In the case of poetry festivals, like Le marché de la poésie in Paris, which takes place in the open air on the Place Saint-Sulpice, the public is free to come and go as they please; no fee is charged for the reading and the desire is that of popularising poetry, making it accessible within the public space. In this instance the context may influence what Berman has called the “visée éthique de la traduction” (1984: 17) as the translation is often provided for the particular reading; this in turn may affect the type of translation produced. The translator may, in the case of dense, reference-based poetry offer an over-explicative approach in an attempt to decode and render more accessible the poetry unavailable in the printed word. This was the case in a reading given by the contemporary Irish poet, Joe Woods, at Le marché de la poésie in Paris on 8 June 2013. Among the poems read by the poet was “Carvery Lunch in County Louth”. This dense prose poem was packed with references as can be seen in the following extract:

Today it might be the banner county, the wee county or the cats and a voice
commentates as if from under a wet newspaper. Childhood Sundays haunted
by that drone, coming from car-radios by the sea, where solitary men sat
in satori and summer heat. We take our poison, toddlers scream,
and grown-ups in acrylic green jerseys drink lager like milk,
in a culture of the coronary, some dispossession taking place.
(Woods, 2011: 16)

  • 4 . Unpublished translation by Paul Bensimon and Clíona Ní Ríordáin.

Aujourd’hui c’est peut être Clare, le comté de la bannière, ou Louth, le tout petit comté, ou Kilkenny, le comté des chats, et une voix
Commente comme à travers un journal mouillé. Les dimanches de l’enfance furent hantés
Par ce bourdonnement, qui vient des radios dans les voitures au bord de mer, où des hommes solitaires s’assirent en satori dans la chaleur estivale. Nous prenons notre poison, les bambins hurlent,
Et des adultes dans des maillots verts en acrylique boivent de la bière blonde comme du lait,
Dans la culture de la crise cardiaque, la dépossession a lieu4.

14The impulse of the translator is to elucidate and make explicit the referential elements to enable the listeners to decipher elements that could have remained allusive in the written reception of the text, this is the case for the banner county, the wee county or the cats, where the technique of incrementalisation is used to clarify those references. While the approach of the translator, which consists of making cultural allusions explicit, is not confined to translations produced for bilingual discovery readings, the temptation to clarify references which may be obscure for a target audience is much greater in a setting where the immediate apprehension of the source text seems to a be vital factor in the reception of the original poem.

15The status of the translator at Le marché de la poésie is clearly that of a minor artisan. Unacknowledged, not present on the stage (s/he is represented by an actor), the translator’s function is to facilitate access to the original. The pure orality of the spoken word can be caught on an auditory level, understood, partially or incompletely by the audience. The sequencing seems to be important here. Given that in interpretation terms what we are faced with is a décalage, the reading by the poet originator of the poem first seems essential; the impact of the reading of the original continues in a residual auditory fashion and the translation has a subsidiary role. I would argue that here, because of the sequential timing and the unknown nature of the poems, the translator may err on the side of sense and meaning rather than sound. This is also possible because the audience has experienced the full impact of the sensorial auditory quality of the original and it is therefore meaning, or what the poem is about, that seeks to be conveyed in these translations. In this case, the translated text is produced for a specific purpose, i.e. that of the reading, and is often revised for publication as the absence of the residual auditory effect of the reading of the original poem highlights the deficiencies of such “translations for the moment” which are made for the ear, enabling the audience to picture the poem.

Case Study 4: Well-known poet and well-known translator

16The status of poet and translator can also change the reception of the poetry-reading. This is the case especially when the translator is a poet in his/her own right. To exemplify this type of reading I would like to take the case of the reading given by Valérie Rouzeau and her English language translator, Susan Wicks at the Cork Spring Poetry Festival on 18 February 2011.

17Valérie Rouzeau is an award-winning French poet born in 1967. She is the author of more than fifteen books of poetry, the most celebrated being Pas Revoir and Vrouz. Her biography makes much of the fact that she is a scrap-merchant’s daughter. She studied at the University of Tours and is herself a translator of some repute, notably of the works of Sylvia Plath and William Carlos Williams. Susan Wicks, an English poet and novelist, has published six collections of poetry with Faber and Bloodaxe. She won The Scott Montcrieff prize in 2010 for her translation of Rouzeau’s Pas Revoir (published as Cold Spring in Winter, 2010) and the Oxford Weidenfeld Translation Prize in 2014 for her translation of Rouzeau’s Vrouz (Talking Vrouz, Arc 2013). Rouzeau’s work, on the page, is electrifying:

Toi mourant man au téléphone pernoctera pas voir papa.
Le train foncé sous la pluie dure pas mourir mon père oh steu plaît tends-moi me dépêche d’arriver.
Pas mouranrir désespérir père infinir lever courir –
Main montre l’heure sommes à Vierzon dehors ça tombe des grêlons.
Nous nous loupons ça je l’ignore passant Vierzon que tu es mort en cet horaire.
Pas mourir steu plaît infinir jusqu’au couloirs blanc d’infirmières.
Jusqu’à ton lit comme la loco poursuit vite vers Lyon la Part-Dieu.
Jusqu’à ton front c’est terminé tout le monde dans la petite chambre rien oublier.
(Rouzeau, 2010 [1999]: 7)

18The poetry is inventive, playful, personal. It is a poetry of neologism and punning that delights in the potentiality of language. Wicks’ translation is successful, an accomplished attempt to English Rouzeau’s personal idiolect:

You dying on the phone my mum he will not last the night see dad.
The train a dark rush under rain not last not die my father please oh please give me the get there soon.
Not deadying oh not desperish father everlast get up run fast—
Hand watch the time we’ve got to Vierzon outside it’s tipping hail.
We miss each other I have no idea passing through Vierzon that in these train arrival times you’ve died.
Not die oh please but everlast until the nurses’ corridor of white.
Until your bed as fast the engine into Lyon la Part-Dieu.
Until your forehead over now and all together in the little room and not forget.
(Rouzeau, 2010: 15)

19In both the original and the translation, we are undoubtedly in the presence of two voices that speak to us in English and in French. However, it is in the sequential poetry reading that the separateness and distinctness of the two voices become apparent5.

20Valérie Rouzeau at her readings stands very close to the microphone. Her voice is distinctive, the timbre and urgency of the delivery reinforce the originality of the page poem. This is not orthodox language or orthodox poetry. The poet’s reading seems to eat the words and create a sense of intimacy, the loneliness of the daughter of a dying daddy.

21Susan Wicks’ reading on the other hand reinforces the elements that are lost in her translation.

22The expression steuplaît tends-moi with its elisions and hints at popular speech are amongst the chief elements that Wicks’ translation fails to capture, although she brilliantly renders the neologically playful Pas mouranrir désespérir père infinir lever courir as Not deadying oh not desperish father everlast get up run fast. It is the intimacy of popular speech that disappears from Wicks’reworking of the poem in English. Her tone, accent and phrasing all confirm this. The translated text has thus taken on a specific English characteristic, reinforced through the reading, that allows us to see the English translation as an independent text that stands alongside the original in a separate and discrete spatial dimension. I would argue that it is only in the reading aloud of the text by the poet and her translator that is it possible to capture the separateness of the original poem and its translation. The ambiguity Peter Robinson refers to, which for him lies at the heart of the act of translation, “the sound of one voice pretending to be another” (Robinson, 2010: 50), is impossible in the case of poet and poet-translator standing side by side.

Case Study 5: Reading by a poet in a Minority Language

23It is in the bilingual poetry reading of the minority language poet that the status of translation is perhaps most interesting, even problematic. In the case of those writing in a minoritized language, which cohabits uneasily with a majority language, the issue of poetry reading can prove challenging. Again, it is a question of sequence and décalage. Often, the reader in the minority language feels that the audience will be impatient with the original text and so the readings are undertaken with the poet reading a translation of the poem before engaging in the reading of their own original text; frequently the translations have been undertaken by other poets. This is the case for instance with the poetry of Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill. Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill is probably one of the best known Irish language poets writing today. In her readings outside Ireland she reads the English language translations of her poems before her own original texts6. Ní Dhomhnaill’s poetry has been translated for her by many celebrated English language poets like Paul Muldoon, Seamus Heaney and Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin. While Ní Dhomhnaill retains distinctive ownership of the original texts, the reversal of sequence and the fact that she reads both the translated text and the original is disturbing for the audience. Unlike the joint readings of Wicks and Rouzeau, where ownership of the original and the translation is clear because each is identified with their respective language, the issues of voice together with the status of the original text/source language can become blurred as the audience listens to one voice reading both translation and original.

24This issue of ownership becomes even more acute when the translation is also the work of the poet writing in the minority language. What is the ontological status of the translation in this case? Here the distinction between original text and translated text and the very notion of “hospitality” within the target language is difficult to determine. The poet is obviously announced as being a poet writing in a particular language but if the source language is read sequentially in second place and, unlike the example given of the urdophone poet, if there are no or few receptors of the original language in the auditorium, the status of the original language can be transformed into exotic phonics.

25Nowhere has the impact of such readings been greater than on the poets themselves. The result of these readings can mean that minority language poets who have translated their own work can be tempted to produce their original work in the majority language. A number of Irish language poets have thus migrated from the minority to the majority language, among them Mícheál Ó Siadhail, Doireann Ní Ghríofa and more famously Michael Hartnett. Hartnett announced in the title poem of his collection A Farewell to English that he was abandoning English (“the perfect language to sell pigs in”) to “court the language of my people” (Hartnett, 1975: 35). Although Hartnett wrote in Irish for a number of years, he was to return to writing in English in the years that preceded his death, notably by writing Haikus, a formal means to foreignize and constrain the English language.

26The attraction of the majority language and the sirens of the translation process have also affected poets writing in languages other than those considered to be a minority language. It was the case with the Russian language poet, Joseph Brodsky, who moved to writing in English at the end of his poetic career. As Julia Stakhnevich has pointed out, Brodsky became a translingual poet (2006: 11-30), investing in the translation process as William Doreski has said in his review of Brodsky’s Collected Poems in English “to develop an English-language audience” (2001: 137-139). The terminology Doreski uses here is significant: he does not refer to a readership but to an audience. I would like to argue that it is in the bilingual poetry reading process that this translingual identity emerges. For Brodsky and for the Irish language poets another linguistic identity was constituted, constructed not just through the written process of self-translation but also through hearing themselves read in that other target language, forging a new linguistic identity, a new self who was valued and validated by the audience in the reading process. While Brodsky, as a Russian writer living in exile in the United States, was able to maintain a form of literary bilingualism, such is frequently not the case for the Irish language writers who move to writing in English. An indication perhaps that the bilingual poetry reading of a minoritized language poet may, ironically, be the ultimate reminder that no one is listening.

27Bilingual poetry readings are therefore above all moments of encounter as much as they are moments of translation. They enable the audience to come into contact with the poet as embodiment of the written word; they clarify and reinforce the identity of poet and translator when these two beings are distinct. However for the minoritized bilingual poet the moment of hospitality offered in the poetry reading also provides an encounter with his/her other linguistic self, opening linguistic perspectives confirmed by auditory horizons that the printed page does not afford.

28From the case studies addressed in this article it is clear that a problematics specific to bilingual poetry readings does emerge from the variables described above, where the status of the translated text depends very much on the conditions in which the translation is uttered. What many of the case studies have in common is the essential nature (in the sense the word is used by Benjamin) of the original poem and the fact that in the case of readings with a non-poet translator the status of the translated text is frequently subservient to the original. It is clear that the notion of positionality (Alcoff, 1991-1992: 5-32; Tymoczko, 2010 [2007]: 47) enters into play here. The power of the original is reinforced by the presence and the voice of the poet, contributing to the foregrounding of their conjoint premier position and rank. It is only when a poet-translator undertakes the reading and translation that a sense of equivalence or alternative recreation emerges. While this power play of positionality may be sensed on the page, the presence of two poets reading side by side, or of poet and translator or poet and actor, means that the translation is both uttered and received in a different fashion. At stake in the bilingual poetry reading therefore is the notion of auctoritas, the addition of the voice and presence of the poet to the bilingual poetry equation would seem to indicate that the authority of the author is reinforced and unquestionable, making the translated text more than ever a facilitating subsidiary text on many of the occasions and in most of the situations when bilingual poetry is read aloud.

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Akhtar, Javed, 2015, D’autres mondes, trad. Vidya Vencatesan avec la collaboration de Christine Raguet, Paris, Éditions Janus.

Alcoff, Linda, Winter 1991-1992, “The Problem of Speaking for Others”, Cultural Critique 20, p. 5-32.

Barthes, Roland, 1981, Le grain de la voix, Paris, Éditions du Seuil.

Benjamin, Walter, 1968, Illuminations: Essays and Reflections, Hannah Arendt (ed.), trans. Harry Zohn, New York, Schocken Books.

Berman, Antoine, 1984, L’Épreuve de l’étranger, Paris, Gallimard.

Bernstein, Charles (ed.), 1998, Close Listening: Poetry and the Performed Word, New York, Oxford University Press.

Brodsky, Joseph, 2002, Collected Poems in English, New York, Farrar Strauss & Giroux.

Brook, Donna, Winter 2000 “Giving Poetry Readings”, Ploughshares, vol. 26, No. 4.

Doreski, William, Fall 2001, Review of Joseph Brodsky Collected Poems in English Harvard Review, No. 21.

Hartnett, Michael, 1975, A Farewell to English, Dublin, Gallery Press.

Heaney, Seamus, 2014a, New Selected Poems 1966-1987, London, Faber.

, 2014b, New Selected Poems 1988-2013, London, Faber.

Murr, Naeem, June 2004, “Poetry Readings: A Field Guide”, Poetry, vol. 184, No. 3.

Ní Dhomhnaill, Nuala 1988, Rogha Dánta- Selected Poems, trans. Michael Hartnett, Dublin, Raven, Arts Press.

, 1990, Pharaoh’s Daughter, Gallery, Oldcastle.

, 1992, The Astrakhan Cloak, Gallery, Oldcastle.

, 1999, The Water Horse, Gallery, Oldcastle.

, 2007, The Fifty Minute Mermaid, Gallery, Oldcastle.

Ní Ghríofa, Doireann, 2014, Doirdéan, do Chroí / A Hummingbird, Your Heart, Smithereens Press.

, 2015, Clasp, Dublin, Dedalus.

Ó Siadhail, Mícheál, 2013, Collected Poems, Bloodaxe, Tarset.

Robinson, Peter, 2010, Poetry and Translation: The Art of the Impossible, University of Liverpool Press.

Rouzeau, Valérie, 2010 [1999], Pas revoir, Paris, Table ronde.

, 2010, Cold Spring in Winter, trans. Susan Wicks, Todmorden, Arc.

Stakhnevich, Julia, Spring 2006, “A Total Embrace of Being: A Bilingual Journey of Joseph Brodsky”, South Atlantic Review, vol. 71/2.

Stern, Frederick C., Fall 1991, The Drama Review, vol. 35, No. 3.

Tymoczko, Maria, 2010 [2007], Enlarging Translation, Empowering Translators, Abingdon, New York, Routledge.

Woods, Joseph, 2011, Ocean Letters, Dublin, Dedalus Press.

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1 .

2 . Vidya Vencatesan is Professor of French at the University of Mumbai and editor of Synergies-Inde.

3 . Christine Raguet is Professor Emerita at Paris 3-Sorbonne Nouvelle, director of Palimpsestes, and an award winning translator (Prix Baudelaire, 2012).

4 . Unpublished translation by Paul Bensimon and Clíona Ní Ríordáin.

5 . Examples of their joint reading can be seen on YouTube:;

6 . Poetry reading of Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill at Notre Dame University available at the

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Clíona Ní Ríordáin, « Bilingual Poetry Readings as a Problematics: Five Case Studies », Palimpsestes, 28 | 2015, 189-202.

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Clíona Ní Ríordáin, « Bilingual Poetry Readings as a Problematics: Five Case Studies », Palimpsestes [En ligne], 28 | 2015, mis en ligne le 01 novembre 2015, consulté le 21 mai 2018. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/palimpsestes.2260

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Clíona Ní Ríordáin

Clíona Ní Ríordáin est professeur à la Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3 où elle enseigne la traduction et la littérature irlandaise. Elle est membre du centre de recherche TRACT. Récemment, elle a co-édité avec Paul Bensimon un recueil de traductions, Jeune poésie d’Irlande : les poètes du Munster 1960-2015, aux éditions Illador. Sa recherche porte sur l’intersection entre traduction, création et langage.

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