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Selected online resources

Ressources numériques
Alexander Gaiotto Miyoshi
p. 409-414

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1There are few institutions wholly devoted to art history in Brazil, although many initiatives, such as web communities and study groups, are increasingly taking the matter in different ways. Of course this selection, made mostly according to the online resources provided related to the subject, including art museums and connected activities, does not exhaust the wide range of approaches adopted by the electronic resources available. This selection is not intended as the very best or even the most consistent one. Arranged by topic and in chronological order of institutional creation, it is only a partial reference to the growing art-historical discipline in Brazil.


2– Associação Brasileira de Críticos de Arte (ABCA) (in Portuguese and eventually English)
Created in Rio de Janeiro in 1949 following the establishment of the Association internationale des critiques d’art (AICA) in Paris, the Brazilian Art Critics Association’s headquarters are currently located in São Paulo. The website advises that the activities of ABCA comprise “regional, national, and international seminars, the edition of its
Journal [...] the organization of its archive, the publication of the ‘Crítica de Arte’ Collection, and studies of its Art Criticism Laboratory.” The ABCA also organizes an annual prize awarded to art critics, artists, and personalities, and its Journal has been published online since December 2012 (​jornalabca_n26.html).

3– Associação Brasileira de Museologia (ABM) (in Portuguese)
Although related to museums in general, the website of the Brazilian Association of Museums provides a relevant space for news and updated information on art museums and art history in Brazil. The ABM was founded in 1963 with the purpose of bringing together museum professionals and individuals interested in museum studies.

4– Comitê Brasileiro de História da Arte (CBHA) (in Portuguese)
The Brazilian Committee of Art History was founded in 1972 as an association of researchers dedicated to the study of Brazilian and international art. Its website provides links to the annual thematic seminar organized by the CBHA since the early 2000s ( From there, it is possible to download a number of the papers presented at the seminars.

5– Sociedade de Arqueologia Brasileira (SAB) (in Portuguese)
The Brazilian Archaeology Society began its activities in 1980. Nowadays the SAB has two periodicals,
Arqueologia em Debate and the Revista de Arqueologia. The first one is a small bulletin available at​jornal, while the Revista de Arqueologia, the society’s official journal, was founded in 1983 to publish Brazilian and foreign contributions. Issues are available in PDF format at​revista.

6– Associação Nacional de Pesquisadores em Artes Plásticas (ANPAP) (in Portuguese)
Established in 1987, the National Association of Researchers in Fine Arts draws together professionals in different fields. One of its five committees is devoted to art history, theory, and criticism. Every year ANPAP organizes a meeting in a preselected Brazilian city. The website furnishes information on subjects debated in the meetings since its foundation and also links to the papers presented (

Libraries and Archives

7– Biblioteca Nacional (in Portuguese) (digital collection, in Portuguese)
Roughly 9 million items make up the collection of Brazil’s major library. Its collection of visual materials is significant, namely the important collection that formerly belonged to the emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II. The roughly 100,000 books and objects from the Royal Library, including maps, scores, drawings, photographs, and engravings, were donated to the BN by Pedro II after 1889, the first year of the Brazilian Republic. Almost 23,000 photographs – one of the emperor’s favored media – were integrated into the Thereza Christina Collection, thus named in homage to the empress. According to the BN website, its holdings of nineteenth-century photographs from Brazil, Africa, Europe, and North America are the best in the country and “portray the reality of the period and reflect the personality of the emperor and his interests.” A distinctive example is the “Collecção de 44 Vistas Photographicas da Estrada de Ferro D. Pedro 2,” with views from the 1880s taken around the Railway D. Pedro II (​acervo_digital/​div_iconografia/​icon381909/​galeria/​index.htm).

8– Biblioteca Mario de Andrade (in Portuguese) (digital collection, in Portuguese)
Founded as the São Paulo Municipal Library in 1925, the BMA is the second major public library in Brazil. The hemerotheque has nearly 12,000 titles of newspapers and journals from the nineteenth century to the present. The map collection contains about 7,000 items, including remarkable manuscript plans of many Brazilian regions dating from the late eighteenth century. Urban drawings of São Paulo from between 1810 and 1870 are also available for research. In addition, the Sérgio Milliet Hall houses over 29,000 books and 10,000 periodicals specialized in art, as well as about 3,000 documents such as calendars, invitations, exhibition catalogs, posters, and artistic reproductions.

9– Arquivo Público do Estado de São Paulo (in Portuguese)
The Public Archive of the State of São Paulo has an iconographic and cartographic collection with nearly 1.5 million images, including photographs, illustrations, maps, and urban drawings, primarily from the twentieth century. A portion of those images, such as the Guilherme Gaensly photographic collection, has been digitized and is available on the Public Archive website, (

Art Museums, Institutes, and Projects

10– Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo (in Portuguese, English, and Spanish)
Among the most vibrant art institutes in Brazil the Pinacoteca do Estado occupies two buildings in the neighborhood of Luz, in São Paulo. Though officially inaugurated in 1905, the painting collection was begun around 1893 with paintings thematically connected to the history of the state of São Paulo. One of its buildings houses the Estação Pinacoteca, which mostly shows modern and contemporary art but also features a memorial on resistence to the Brazilian military dictatorship. The other building, beside the Luz Park, contains the main collections and exhibitions of the Pinacoteca. Lastly, it is worth noting the web pages of the “Museu para Todos” (, an initiative of the Pinacoteca’s art-education division to promote pedagogic activities linked to the institution.

11– Museu Nacional de Belas Artes (MNBA)​2_colecoes/​colecoes.htm (in Portuguese)
Containing the art collection that belonged to the National School of Fine Arts, the National Museum of Fine Arts was founded in 1937 and is situated in Rio de Janeiro. Poor and puzzled, the MNBA website unfortunately does not reflect the importance of its collections and activities.

12– Museu de Arte de São Paulo Assis Chateaubriand (MASP) (in Portuguese)
Founded in 1947 and located in an emblematic building designed by the architect Lina Bo Bardi, the most important Brazilian art collection has around 8,000 pieces, including exceptional paintings by Raphael, Mantegna, Titian, Goya, Poussin, Delacroix, Van Gogh, and a selection of French Impressionist works. The highlights are displayed on the internet, accompanied by information on them.

13– Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo (MAM-SP) (in Portuguese and English)
Inside the Ibirapuera Park in São Paulo city, the Museum of Modern Art has a dynamic and varied program of public outreach. The MAM’s well-organized and very complete website provides links to the associations and the collectors club (engraving, photography, and design), and to information on the collection. MAM-SP was created in 1948, but the modern artworks were later moved to the MAC-USP (see entry), and the MAM-SP had to start a new collection, mostly of contemporary art.

14– Museu Victor Meirelles (in Portuguese)
Victor Meirelles de Lima was the first great painter from Brazil. The house where he was born in Florianópolis has been the museum’s headquarters since 1956. It holds paintings, drawings, and watercolors by Meirelles, as well as works by artists from the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The website offers a range of images, texts, and information related not only to Meirelles but also to art and museums in general. The e-magazine
Ventilando Acervos ( is promoting knowledge on the management of museum collections.

15– Museu de Arte do Rio Grande do Sul Ado Malagoli (MARGS) (in Portuguese)
The MARGS is sited in Porto Alegre city and was inaugurated in 1957 with a retrospective on the painter Pedro Weingärtner. The museum has roughly 2,700 works in large part made by gaúcho Brazilian artists but also including works by Rosa Bonheur, Henry Geoffroy, and Käthe Kollwitz, among others. Since the beginning, MARGS has recorded its activities and art criticism in its own journals. One of them is the
Jornal do MARGS, published as a paper magazine since 1993 and online since 2008 (

16– Museu de Arte Sacra de Salvador (in Portuguese)
The Luso-Brazilian sculptures in gold, silver, ivory, wood, and terracotta are some of the treasures in the Sacred Art Museum in Salvador. It was inaugurated as part of the University of Bahia in 1959. The website has links to the museum highlights and offers information on the institutional history, its collection and the architecture of Santa Teresa d’Ávila church, a seventeenth-century building and the headquarters of the museum.

17– Museu de Arte Moderna da Bahia (in Portuguese)
The Museum of Modern Art of Bahia is located in the Solar do Unhão, a seventeenth-century complex along the shore in Salvador, rehabilitated by Lina Bo Bardi’s architectural project. Founded in the early 1960s (at the current address from 1966), the MAM-BA has a collection of paintings, sculptures, photographs, and drawings by Brazilian modern and contemporary artists of which a portion is available online.

18– Fundação Bienal de São Paulo (in Portuguese and English)
The São Paulo Biennial Foundation was created in 1962 to support one of the most important international events on contemporary art. All the biennial catalogs are available on the website (), which also offers useful links to a constantly updated historical archive, including the following dossiers with photographs and documents: Guernica in the second biennial (, Fluxus (, and Keith Harring ( both in the seventeenth biennial.

19– MAC-USP – Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo (in Portuguese)
Distributed in three buildings (one at the Ibirapuera Park and two at the São Paulo University campus, both in São Paulo), the Museum of Contemporary Art was formed in 1963 from the Francisco Mattarazzo Sobrinho collection, formerly part of the MAM-SP (see entry), and which comprises nearly 10,000 works of modern and contemporary art including a wide range of Italian painting from twentieth century, the only one self-portrait by Amedeo Modigliani, and the original plaster of the
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space by Umberto Boccioni. The MAC-USP online resources present images and information on the collection, as well as the activities and the events developed by the museum.

20– Museu Lasar Segall (in Portuguese, English, and Spanish)
Installed in 1967 in the artist Lasar Segall’s former atelier and residence, the museum holds over 3,000 items, including 71 paintings, 70 sculptures, 386 engravings, and 2,481 drawings by the artist. The main goal of the institution, according to its website, “is to preserve and study the work of Lasar Segall, and make it known by promoting exhibitions and publications.” Beyond that, however, it offers courses in printmaking, photography, literature, in addition to other educational activities. The website shows part of its collection, as well as art historical and critical texts.

21– Museu de Arte Sacra de São Paulo (in Portuguese)
The Sacred Art Museum of São Paulo was founded in 1970 and houses one of the most important collections of religious art in Brazil, with pieces from old churches. The collection includes works by Brazilian and foreign artists produced from the sixteenth century, such as Aleijadinho, Frei Agostinho da Piedade, Frei Agostinho de Jesus, Mestre Valentim, Mestre Athayde, Almeida Júnior, Benedito Calixto, and Anita Malfatti. The website provides information on the museum’s history, its collection, and its events.

22– Museu de Arte Contemporânea do Paraná (in Portuguese)
At Curitiba city, the Museum of Contemporary Art of Paraná was created in early seventies. In addition to collecting and preserving artworks, the MAC-PR is dedicated to art education and the promotion of new artists through the important Salão Paranaense, sponsored by MAC since 1970. Its web resources link to information on both the collection and the museum’s activities.

23– Museu D. João VI (in Portuguese)
Inaugurated in 1979, the D. João VI Museum belongs to the University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, and gathers collections of the School of Fine Arts and its Historical Archives. It houses particularly the artistic and architectural production (painting, sculpture, ornaments, medals, drawings, etc.) as well as documentation related to the pensioners of the School, mostly from nineteenth century. The website offers access to visuals of the collection.

24– Projeto Cândido Portinari (in Portuguese)
In 1979, Cândido Portinari’s son João Candido started this project is, which still directed by him. The Portinari Project is totally dedicated to the work of the most widely-known Brazilian painter, with the support of a large number of researchers and sponsors.

25– Fundação Nemirovsky (in Portuguese)
Currently displayed at the Estação Pinacoteca (see entry), the José and Paulina Nemirovsky Foundation was created in 1987 to preserve and promote the artworks collected by the couple. Besides nearly 300 items, including drawings, gouaches, watercolors, prints, sculptures and paintings (
Antropofagia by Tarsila do Amaral is one of them), the Foundation houses the Centro de Referência de Arte Moderna Brasileira to assist researchers and encourage the study of collecting in Brazil.

26– Instituto Lina Bo e Pietro Maria Bardi (in Portuguese)
Founded by Lina Bo e P. M. Bardi in 1990, the ILBPMB promotes study and research on Brazilian culture, especially in architecture, art and design. The ILBPMB is placed in São Paulo in the “House of Glass” designed by Bo Bardi and built in 1951. The website was recently remodeled to show part of Bo Bardi’s works and documents in digital format.

27– Fundação Iberê Camargo (in Portuguese)
The foundation in honor of the painter Camargo was created in 1995 in his former residence in Porto Alegre; it is now is housed in a prized building designed by the Portuguese architect Álvaro Siza. The aim of the FIC is to preserve, organize, and promote the work of Camargo, as well as art and cultural activities more generally. The website has links to the digital collection and the offers the possibility of downloading educational material, as well as the magazine
Lugares (

28– Projeto Leonilson (in Portuguese)
Leonilson, an artist prominent in the 1980s, was born in Fortaleza, in 1957, and passed away in 1993. Part of his artistic production is housed in São Paulo, where the Leonilson Project has worked since 1995. The Project has catalogued some 3,000 items, and almost 2,500 images were digitalized. The website promotes Leonilson’s legacy, showing pictures, bibliography, and texts by and on the artist.

29– Fundação Bienal do Mercosul (in Portuguese, English, and Spanish)
Established in 1996 in Porto Alegre to promote the Mercosul Biennial, this private non-profit institution is devoted to Latin American contemporary art. The events and activities are provided to the public free of charge. In addition to news related to the Mercosul Biennial, its website has links to information on previous biennials, digital photo galleries, and a guide to public art in Porto Alegre.

30– MUnA – Museu Universitário de Arte (in Portuguese)
The Museum of Art of the University of Uberlândia was founded in 1996 and has a small collection of contemporary art, specially engravings. The MUnA has a dedicated building in the oldest part of Uberlândia and frequently shows works of Brazilian and foreign artists. The museum is the only one devoted to art in the region and also contains an important lab for university students, professors, and researchers. Its website shows part of its collection and exhibitions since 2006.

31– Inhotim – Instituto de Arte Contemporânea e Jardim Botânico (in Portuguese and English)
This outdoor museum houses one of the most important contemporary art collections in Brazil. Situated in Brumadinho in 97 hectare area includes a botanical garden by the landscape design agency of Roberto Burle Marx, the Inhotim Institute was founded in 2002 and holds nearly 500 works by artists from different nationalities, especially Brazilian, from the 1960s to the present. Artworks by Cildo Meirelles, Tunga, and Adriana Varejão, for example, are exhibited inside pavilions, while sculptures are distributed throughout the park. The website shows part of the collection with short explanations on some artworks.

32– Museu Afro Brasil (in Portuguese)
The Museu Afro Brasil, located in São Paulo, is dedicated to the research, conservation, and exhibition of works related to the Afro-Brazilian population and its history and cultural influences. With more than 5,000 objects from the fifteenth century to the present, the MAB was inaugurated in 2004, and its website has images and texts from permanent, temporary, and traveling exhibitions.

33– Projeto Eliseu Visconti (in Portuguese)
Eliseu d’Angelo Visconti was one of the most important painters in Brazil in the early twentieth century. In 2005, his grandson Tobias Visconti, in conjunction with art historians, officially launched this project. Numerous images (an efficient catalogue, photographs, etc.), accompanied by accurate information, can be seen on the website.

Research Centers, Study Groups, and related organizations

34–Centro de História da Arte e Arqueologia (CHAA) (in Portuguese)
The Center for Art History and Archaeology was created in 1994 to support studies in both fields, at the History Department of the University of Campinas, Unicamp, and widely present on the internet from 2009 on. The CHAA develops projects such as the biannual
Journal of Art History and Archaeology (see entry RHAA), the Art History Meeting (Encontro de História da Arte, EHA) organized annually at Unicamp since 2004 (every paper presented is available at, and Warburg (see entry), an interactive online database begun in 2013. CHAA also promotes exchanges between researchers and international institutions, besides classes and lectures in Unicamp by art historians and critics from outside of Brazil.

35– Canal Contemporâneo (in Portuguese)
A digital community with online publication on Brazilian contemporary art: that is how Canal Contemporâneo designates itself. Its first initiative was the e-bulletin
e-nforme, created in 2000 to archive and share knowledge on contemporary art, and the same principles now sustain its different web modules: e-bulletins, blogs, forums, portfolios, and art calendar.

36– Fórum Permanente: Museus de Arte; entre o público e o privado (in Portuguese)
The Fórum Permanente has functioned since 2003 as a cultural association that mediates the relationship between what it calls the system of contemporary art – including universities since Fórum is linked to the Communication and Arts School of the University of São Paulo, ECA-USP – and the public. The website refers to the Fórum as “an agora, a laboratory-museum, a magazine, a living archive”, where textual and video records are available.

Journals and Periodicals

37Arte & Ensaios (in Portuguese)
The Post-Graduate Program in Visual Arts of the University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, organises the journal
Arte & Ensaios since 1993. Addressed to the academic-scientific community with broad institutional diversity of authorship, including international authors, a paper edition of the journal is published every semester, while the website offers access to a free online versions of previous issues.

38– Revista de História da Arte e Arqueologia (RHAA) (in Portuguese and various languages)
Since it was sponsored by the CHAA in 1994, the
Journal of Art History and Archaeology is the first and only periodical in Brazil that brings together both fields. It publishes recent studies not only from local researchers and in Portuguese, but also from the other countries and in different languages (the papers are always published in two languages). One of its aims is to put Brazilian and international production in both disciplines in close contact and to promote exchanges between subjects, procedures, and approaches. Every issue is available online in PDF format free of charge.

39Concinnitas (in Portuguese)
Founded in 1996,
Concinnitas is a biannual publication of the Institute of Arts of the State University of Rio de Janeiro, UERJ. Concinnitas seeks to attract artists, teachers and researchers, as well as the general public, in addition to experts. The journal also publishes visual essays. Previous issues are partially available on the internet.

40– Portal Vitruvius (in Portuguese and eventually Spanish and English)
The web portal Vitruvius began its activities in 2000, mostly to reach architects, professors, students, and researchers in architecture and urbanism. In addition to expert articles, Vitruvius informs on various competitions and events, including design, opera, cinema, theater, and music shows. Vitruvius has gathered the magazines
Arquitextos, Drops, Minha Cidade, Entrevistas, Resenhas Online, Projetos, and Arquiteturismo, among others, all fully available for free.

41Ars (in Portuguese)
The half-yearly journal
Ars was created in 2003 to publish works of by art students, artists, critics, and art historians, as well as Portuguese translations of important texts, and visual essays. Ars is published by the Visual Arts Department of the Communication and Arts School of the University of São Paulo, ECA-USP, and is available for free download.

42Visualidades (in Portuguese and various languages)
Since 2003
Visualidades publishes studies on art and visual culture in twice-yearly periodical. Linked to the Post-Graduate Program in Visual Culture of the University of Goiás, UFG, Visualidades provides quality research in disciplines related to art history in the Central-Western Brazil. Every issue of Visualidades, which includes material in English, French, and Spanish, is available online free of charge (

43– Dezenovevinte (in Portuguese and eventually in other languages)
The website promotes the dissemination and revision of the Brazilian and international art from the nineteenth to the beginning of the twentieth century, as well as primary sources. Since 2006,
Dezenovevinte publishes the online magazine 19&20 ( providing studies that offer new interpretations and meanings for the long nineteenth-century Brazilian artistic legacy.

Art and Cultural Centers

44– Itaú Cultural (in Portuguese and eventually English, French, and Spanish)
The two last decades have seen the strengthening of cultural institutions through support from companies and financial institutions in Brazil. Criticism over the controversial intentions of those centers (particularly regarding the advantage gained from tax incentives) aside, one of the most important is Itaú Cultural. Founded in 1987, it now has a vast range of activities, including in literature and theater. Particularly useful are the “Rumos Program” (created in 1997 to stimulate the production and dissemination of Brazilian art and culture in the country) and the Itaú Cultural Encyclopaedia
(see entry).

45– Instituto Moreira Salles (IMS)​ (in Portuguese)
Created in 1992 by a family owner of a former Brazilian bank, the IMS is a dynamic institution dedicated to the promotion of Brazilian art and culture. Prominent in five areas (literature, photography, library, visual arts, and music) the IMS has two magazines,
Serrote ( and Zum (​revistazum), devoted to culture and to photography respectively. The website has links to digital version of the IMS collection, beautifully displayed and easily manageable.

Online Databases

46– Enciclopédia Itaú Cultural de Artes Visuais (in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish)
The Itaú Cultural Encyclopaedia of the Visual Arts is an evolving database begun in 2001 devoted to “researching, collecting, processing and digitizing information on the visual arts,” according to the website. The Encyclopaedia provides summary information on artists, critics, collectors and events related to the Brazilian visual arts, with over 3,000 articles and 12,000 pictures. Divided into six groups (Artists, Institutions and museums, Terms and concepts, Milestones in Brazilian art, Works, and Database), it is ergonomic and provides concise information.

47– Museu de Arte para Educação (MARE) (in Portuguese and eventually English)
The Art Museum for Education is a database on Western Art topics from Antiquity to the present comprising visual and textual documents indexed in one of the ten categories (“Ancient Mythology, History, and Topography”, for example). Also providing up-to-date information and a recent bibliography on the analyzed artworks, the goal of MARE “is to offer a platform for the study and research of art history in line with the Classical Tradition, with an emphasis on multiple interactions between the figure and its textual references.”

48– Warburg – banco comparativo de imagens (in Portuguese)
This comparative image database has the suggestive name of the art historian who inspired the tool procedures and purposes. Warburg is an ongoing thesaurus for the arrangement of images according to an association among shapes, colors, and composition, in addition to other kind of affinities, similarities, including keywords. As the most recent initiative of the CHAA, Warburg
still has limited images – currently around 7,000 – but the database is fed regularly by students, professors, artists, and researchers of art history and visual culture.


49– Mapa das Artes (website in Portuguese; folder in Portuguese and English)
Mapa das Artes offers a panorama of art-related events in Brazil, especially for São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. In the form of a folder with a city map freely distributed in hotels, art galleries, and related spots, the Mapa das Artes delivers a vast array of up-to-date coverage on the following topics: 1) museums and cultural centers; 2) art galleries and offices; 3) institutional spots; 4) ateliers and more. Although substantially occupied by advertisement, the Mapa das Artes is independent from institutions and frequently has a short but incisive editorial.

50– DASartes (in Portuguese)
DASartes is a web portal for news on visual arts in Brazil, mostly related to events and exhibitions, but also including interviews with artists, curators, and other art professionals (link “revista”). Although related to commercial art galleries and not to academic institutions (much like Mapa das Artes), both the paper and online versions of DASartes help to inform, particularly on contemporary art in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

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