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Detailed Technical Guidelines for Authors, Editors and Translators


These Technical Guidelines provide detailed instructions and tips for contributing authors, editors and translators collaborating with International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développpement.

It details the Guidelines for Authors in Brief. Please also refer to the Ethics Statement of the journal.

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Editors' notes

Last update: 23 March 2021.

Remarks and questions are welcome. Person to contact: Marie Thorndahl, Editorial Manager, International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement | marie.thorndahl (@)

1. Structure of the Article

Title (Each article submitted should have a short, informative title not exceeding 70 characters including spaces)

Author(s) name(s)

Note about the author(s) (including address and biographical information—not exceeding 75 words—plus author[s] affiliation[s], areas of expertise, etc.)

Keywords (4 to 6)

Abstract (not exceeding 300 words)

Acknowledgements (if any; including acknowledgement of funding source[s] for the research if applicable)

Remarks (if any)

Epigraph (if any)

Text (Times New Roman, 11 pt)

1. Chapter (first level)

1.1. Section (second level)

1.1.1. Subsection (third level)

Reference list (see section 14 of these guidelines)

Annexes (if any)

2. Levels of Subheads

Please use no more than three levels of subheads, which should be typed in title case capitalization following the Chicago Manual of Style. Do not use a different size or style of font. These three levels are numbered (without resorting to automatic numbering). Their organisation is as follows:

1. Chapter (first level)

1.1. Section (second level)

1.1.1. Subsection (third level)

3. Text

The text should be typed in Times New Roman 11 pt., with 1.5 line spacing, 3cm margins all around, and all pages consecutively numbered.

4. Notes

Footnotes (typed in Times New Roman 10 pt.) are used for additional information and not for bibliographical references. References are treated according to the author–date system using the journal’s specific format of documentation, which is described in detail in section 16 of these guidelines.

5. Language

For authors writing in English, please note that the journal uses British English spelling (please consult the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), online subscription version). This includes ‘-ise’ and ‘-yse’ spelling variants, such as ‘organisation’ and not ‘organization’, ‘analyse’ and not ‘analyze’, etc. When using proper nouns and institutional titles, however, please use the official, preferred spelling (for example, ‘International Labour Organization’).

For grammar, usage, and style, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago) online subscription version or 17th print edition (2017).

Exceptions to the OED and Chicago, along with points of journal house style are presented in the sections that follow.

6. Quoted Matter and Quotation Marks

Single quotation marks are—in an exception to Chicago—preferred, including to set off newly introduced terms or terms that are being used in a nonstandard manner. These are sometimes referred to as ‘scare quotes’.


The gang truces negotiated in El Salvador illustrate this point very clearly, as does the consistent failure of efforts to maintain ceasefires and ‘cantonment’ in Mali.

Use scare quotes only the first time a term is used in the abstract, introduction, main body of the paper, and conclusion. Subsequent occurrences in each of these sections do not take scare quotes.

Quotations of up to 50 words are run into the text and indicated by single quotation marks. Double quotation marks are used only for quotes within quotes.


‘The southwestern traffic was well placed to exploit these weaknesses. Moreover, local cultivation of opium proved particularly suited to the needs of the indigenous peoples, Han peasants, and merchants, as well as local dynastic officials, because it was powerful enough to generate incomes for all concerned.’ (Bello, 2003, 1134)

Quotations of over 50 words are set off as ‘block quotations’, meaning that they are set as separate paragraphs indented from the left. Block quotations are not enclosed in inverted commas.


As Newman writes,

The opium interests in Malwa faced difficulty if not ruin. Local merchants needed to sell their chests with a minimum of delay to the exporters in Bombay if they were to recoup their investment; moreover, many of them were holding substantial reserves of old opium which now seemed unlikely to find a market at all. If local merchants and moneylenders became bankrupt they would reduce the supply of credit to Malwa peasantry and hamper the process of crop substitution, which was already less advanced in Malwa than in northern India […] the decline of the China trade endangered many of the princely economies […] [while] [i]n the matter of agricultural diversification and development there was little beyond exhortation that the Government of India could do. (Newman, 1989, pp. 537–8)

Foreign-language quotations should be translated into English and information provided on the source of the translation at the end of the text citation. If you are the author of a translation, please include ‘my translation/’author’s translation’ in parentheses following the quotation: e.g. (author, date, page, my translation). The original matter quoted should be included in the manuscript, following its translated version. The editors will check the translations and then delete the foreign-language quoted matter.

Please note:

  • where the syntax of the article’s text requires that the capitalisation of the opening letter of quoted matter be changed, this is permitted and should be indicated in square brackets [ ];

  • further changes, including the addition of words not present in the original text—only permitted for reasons of clarity—should be indicated by the use of square brackets;

  • words or passages present in the original text but omitted from a quotation are indicated by ellipses enclosed in square brackets: […].

7. Other Punctuation Matters

Authors should, in an exception to Chicago, avoid the ‘double punctuation’ permitted in American English. Abbreviations such as ‘e.g.’ and ‘i.e.’ are thus not followed by a comma, and where the abbreviation ‘etc.’ ends a sentence in parentheses no further closing full stop is required.

Use an em dash, no spaces—like this—to set off a parenthetical phrase.

Punctuation following italic or bold text should be set in regular font.

Serial commas should not be used before a final conjunction in series of three or more elements except where required to prevent ambiguity. Care should be taken not to suggest apposition (see the fourth example below).


The author thanks her parents, George Bash, and Melany Rest.

[Here, the serial comma conveys that three individuals are being thanked.]

but not

The author thanks her parents, George Bash and Melany Rest.

[Here, the absence of a serial comma conveys that Mr. Bash and Ms. Rest are the author’s parents, as the comma following ‘parents’ conveys apposition.]


Thanks go to the author’s father, Pope Francis and Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

[Here, three individuals receive the author’s thanks.]

but not

Thanks go to the author’s father, Pope Francis, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

[Here, the pair of commas suggests apposition, which conveys that Pope Francis is the author’s father.]

8. Numbers

Spell out numbers from one to ten. Use numerals for numbers greater than ten except rounded numbers (25 million, around three hundred, etc.), chapter or page numbers, numbers of figures and graphs, units of measurement and percentages. Wherever a unit of measurement is used, the number appears as a numeral followed by the unit of measurement <written in full/given as an abbreviation> (e.g. 3 kilometres/3 km). Percentages always appear as numerals followed by ‘per cent’ in the text, including in parentheses, and by ‘%’ in tables, graphs and footnotes.

For inclusive numbers use an en dash and include full numbers to avoid ambiguity (e.g. 314–318)>.

9. Dates

Dates should be given in the format day month year (e.g. 4 November 2020).

Please spell out centuries (e.g. ‘twentieth century’ instead of ‘20th century’).

For date ranges, use the following format: 2000–12 instead of 2000–2012, but of course 1998–2004. Care should be taken not to mix words and symbols when referring to date ranges. So, for example, ‘from 1998 to 2004, or ‘the period 19982004’, but not ‘from 19982004’.

10. Currencies

Please use the three-character alphabetic codes of currencies listed in ISO norm 4217, e.g. USD 2.50, CHF 250, EUR 2.5 million. Convert all amounts into USD, followed by the indication of the original amount and currency in parentheses.

11. Abbreviations, Initialisms and Acronyms

On their first occurrence, please write abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms in full followed by their short form enclosed in parentheses. Then use that short form consistently without reverting to the full-form version. When using abbreviations as authors in the list of references, follow them with the full-form version, in parentheses, on their first occurrence.


UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) (2014) World Investment Report 2014. Investing in the SDGs: An Action Plan (New York and Geneva: United Nations).

Note that abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms should, where used in their plural sense, be pluralised.


‘This leads to the use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs).’

12. Tables, Figures, Photographs, etc.

Tables, graphs, boxes, etc. should be consecutively numbered (Tables 1, 2, 3, etc.; Graphs 1, 2, 3, etc.). Their source should be mentioned in a note following the figure in author–date format. The complete bibliographic entry should be provided in the reference list according to the documentation style described in section 15 of these guidelines. If a table or figure is not an MS Word document, please provide it in a separate electronic file, not in the MS Word text file, and clearly specify its location in the text. Photographs must have at least a resolution of 300 DPI. Please indicate their author, a caption and who is to be credited.

Please note:

  • concerning each non-royalty-free item that you wish to use, please ensure that you have the right to reproduce it and provide us with written proof of the authorisation (see the annex to these guidelines);

  • for each graph, please provide in an MS Excel file containing the data that were used to make the graph.

13. Style Preferences and Common Errors

Spellings of institutions

Please provide correct and accurate names and spellings for institutions, initiatives, conventions, etc. For example, Swiss National Science Foundation NCCRs are ‘National Centres of Competence in Research’, and not ‘National Centers for Competence in Research’.

Relative clauses

The Journal prefers the Chicago approach to relative clauses, which respects the approach presented in the Oxford Style Guide. Defining clauses are not preceded by commas, and where appropriate are introduced by the word ‘that’. The word ‘which’ is used in non-defining clauses only, which are preceded by a comma.

‘Such’ vs ‘like’

Such as’ introduces examples; ‘like’ conveys similarity or resemblance.

‘e.g.’, ‘i.e.’, ‘that is’

Abbreviations such as ‘e.g.’ and ‘i.e.’ are not used in the main text and instead are confined to foot- and endnotes or explanatory notes to figures, tables, etc. Do not confuse ‘e.g.’, meaning ‘for example’, with ‘i.e.’, meaning ‘that is’. In the running text, ‘e.g.’ is replaced by ‘for example’, and ‘i.e.’ by ‘that is’.


‘To ensure its transition to universal health coverage, for example, Senegal has assembled various existing initiatives to construct a social health protection policy’.

‘More often than not, they also pay “taxes”—that is, a daily fee collected by the “owner of the place”.’

‘latter’ vs ‘former’

The ‘latter’ and the ‘former’ (like ‘either’/‘or’ and ‘neither’/‘nor’) are applicable to two elements only. Where three or more elements are present, use ‘the first [of these]’ and ‘the last [of these]’.


‘The community leaders had long been sending letters to the City, and the Mayor in particular, requesting that the latter meet them and address their concerns’.

‘The Foundation offers a number of funding schemes, including individual grants, research programs, and research programmes, the last of these receiving the most significant sums.’


Repetition is not always to be avoided. ‘Parallelism gives similar grammatical form to sentence elements that have similar function or importance’ (Fowler, H.R. and J.E. Aaron (2012) The Little, Brown Handbook, 12th edition (Boston: Pearson), p. 420).


‘In addition, the ‘numerical’ logic […] comes up against the fact that, within the ILO as in most international organisations, decisions are more and more frequently taken by consensus and that the use of the vote to separate the members is becoming increasingly rare’.

Note, here, that the second occurrence of ‘that’ conveys that the ‘numerical logic’ ‘comes up against’ two discrete facts: that regarding decisions taken by consensus and that regarding the increasing rarity of the vote being used to separate members. Without it, these two ‘facts’ combine, or alternatively the point regarding ‘the vote’ could be a declaration, unrelated to the question of the ‘“numerical” logic’.


Pronouns generally refer back to previous nouns, pronouns, clauses or phrases in a sentence or in a previous sentence. When using them, exercise caution if multiple possible antecedents exist.

Example (from Chicago, 5.27)

In the phrase ‘Scott visited Eric after his discharge from the army’, it is unclear who had been discharged, Scott or Eric.

Initial capital

Giving an initial capital to short versions of the names of institutions, conventions, etc. may add clarity. So, in a text or passage containing multiple references to the World Health Organization, it is permitted to refer to ‘the Organization’ (and, of course, to ‘the WHO’).

Dashes and hyphens

The Journal adheres to Chicago and Oxford Style Guide rules on the use of em, en, and figure dashes and hyphens.


Contractions like ‘don’t’, ‘they’ve’, ‘it’ll’, etc. should be confined to quoted matter.


Italics may be used sparingly to convey emphasis.

Position of footnote numbers

The Journal adheres to Chicago on the positioning of footnote numbers, which follow all adjacent punctuation with the exception of the dash, which they precede.

Use of commas

The contributor should pay particular attention to the use of commas. Commas create pauses, and so add rhythm to a text. But they also convey apposition (where a noun element immediately follows another, defining or further identifying it), give elements of a text a parenthetical nature, convey that elements of text are non-restrictive/non-defining, separate coordinate adjectives, and play a vital role in the setting up of relative clauses, among their many uses. Authors should take care not to inadvertently convey one of these uses while trying to convey another.

14. Bibliographical Guidelines

International Development Policy uses the author–date system, which is comprised of two elements: text citations and a reference list.

Please note that the journal has created a customized Zotero citation style, which authors can find at

14.1 Text Citations

Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by the author’s last (family) name and the publication date of the work cited. Page number(s) should be included when citing quoted matter. These parenthetical citations are called ‘text citations’ (see examples below). The author of a cited work may be an institution, in which case we encourage you to refer to it using the short name or acronym instead of the full name. If the author’s name appears in the sentence in which the work is cited, it need not be repeated in the text citation, which may thus refer to the date of publication alone. If parentheses contain citations of two or more works, the citations should be separated by semicolons. If they contain several works by the same author, the author’s name is given only once and the dates of the works are separated by semicolons. If a citation contains a work by two or three authors, all names are included, but works by more than three authors are cited by the name of only the first author, followed by ‘et al.’.

Author mentioned in text

Rainer Schweickert (1998) has shown that even in the case of strong adjustment efforts, the nominal anchor approach remains a high-risk strategy.

Bibliographic entry

Schweickert, R. (1998) ‘The Nominal Anchor Approach to Stabilisation: Lessons from Argentina’, in C. Auroi (ed.) Latin American and East European Economies in Transition: A Comparative Review, EADI Book Series No. 21 (London: Frank Cass), pp. 44–60.

Two authors

The Gulf of Guinea is one of the few areas of the world that is still believed to contain large-scale undiscovered reservoirs of light sweet crude (Gary and Karl, 2003).

Bibliographic entry

Gary, I. and T.L. Karl (2003) Bottom of the Barrel: Africa’s Oil Boom and the Poor (Baltimore: Catholic Relief Services).

Three authors

(Monsutti, Naef and Sabahi, 2007)

Bibliographic entry

Monsutti, A., S. Naef and F. Sabahi (eds.) (2007) The Other Shiites: From the Mediterranean to Central Asia, Worlds of Islam No. 2 (Bern: Peter Lang).

More than three authors

(Diskul et al., 2019)

Bibliographic entry

Diskul, M.L.D., R. Ninnad, A. Skinner and V. Rajatanarvin (2019) ‘Development Not Drug Control: The Evolution of Counter Narcotic Efforts in Thailand’, Journal of Illicit Economies and Development, 1(1), pp. 80–88, DOI: 10.31389/jied.1

Institution as author

The committee recommended the establishment of a ‘national moratorium on evictions until the determination of the legality of land claims is made’ (CRC, 2011, 61).

Bibliographic entry

CRC (Committee on the Rights of the Child) (2011) Concluding Observations: Cambodia, UN doc. CRC/C/KHM/CO/2, 20 June.

Multiple works by the same author

The World Bank’s Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development aims to increase access to energy in developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, to accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy and to adapt to climate variability and change (World Bank, 2007a; 2007b; 2009).

Bibliographic entries

World Bank (2009) The World Bank Annual Report 2009: Year in Review (Washington, D.C.: World Bank).

World Bank (2007a) Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework: The World Bank Group Action Plan, DC2007-0002 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank).

World Bank (2007b) An Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development (Washington, D.C.: World Bank).

14.2 Reference List

Text citations are complemented by fully detailed bibliographic entries at the end of the text in the form of a reference list. The reference list, headed ‘References’, must contain a complete entry for each of the works cited in the text. Similarly, all works in the reference list must be cited in the text itself.

References are ordered alphabetically according to authors’ last names. Two or more works by the same author(s) published in different years are ordered from the most recent to the oldest. Two or more works by the same author(s) published in the same year are alphabetised by title (disregarding the initial article a, an, the, le, la, un, une…) and the entries are distinguished by a, b, c, and so forth (set in roman, not italic) following the date. In cases in which an author appears as the first contributor of a series of collective works, these are ranked alphabetically according to the first letter of the second author’s last name.

Bibliographic entries should be written in the language of the cited works (see ‘Beauregard and Proulx’ example in 16.2.8 below). Three elements, however, are indicated in English: the conjunction ‘and’ preceding the name of the last author when the cited work has two or more authors (see again ‘Beauregard and Proulx’ example), the abbreviation ‘No.’ as well as the access date (about this date, see 16.3 below). Furthermore, single quotation marks ‘…’ are used, not non-English quotation marks such as French guillemets, « … ».

Single and Multi-author Books

Bowen, J.R. (1991) Indonesia Sumatran Politics and Poetics: Gayo History, 1900–1989 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press).

Land, S.K. (1977) Kett’s Rebellion: The Norfolk Rising of 1549 (Ipswich, UK, and Totowa, NJ: Boydell Press–Rowman and Littlefield).

Monsutti, A., S. Naef and F. Sabahi (eds.) (2007) The Other Shiites: From the Mediterranean to Central Asia, Worlds of Islam No. 2 (Bern: Peter Lang).

Chapter in a Book by the Author(s) Cited

Brubaker, R. (2004) ‘Beyond “Identity”’, in Ethnicity without Groups (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press), pp. 28–63.

Laclau, E. and C. Mouffe (2001) ‘Hegemony: The Genealogy of a Concept’, in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. Towards a Radical Democratic Politics, 2nd edition (London and New York: Verso), pp. 7–46.

Monsutti, A. (2004) ‘Le Hazarajat: parenté et voisinage au village’, in Guerres et migrations: réseaux sociaux et stratégies économiques des Hazaras d’Afghanistan, Recherches et travaux de l’Institut d’ethnologie No. 17 (Neuchâtel: Editions de l’Institut d’ethnologie; Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme), pp. 89–134.

Contributions to an Edited Book

Schweickert, R. (1998) ‘The Nominal Anchor Approach to Stabilisation: Lessons from Argentina’, in C. Auroi (ed.) Latin American and East European Economies in Transition: A Comparative Review, EADI Book Series No. 21 (London: Frank Cass), pp. 44–60.

Lee, H. and D. Shalmon (2008) ‘Searching for Oil: China’s Oil Strategies in Africa’, in R.I. Rotberg (ed.) China into Africa: Trade, Aid and Influence (Baltimore: Brookings Institute Press), pp. 109–136.

Journal Articles

Note that the volume number is not preceded by the abbreviation ‘vol.’ If an issue number is also indicated, it appears in parentheses immediately (that is, without a space) after the volume number. When only an issue number is used, it is not enclosed in parentheses and is preceded by the abbreviation ‘No.’ Note that page numbers do not require comma separators where the journal itself does not use them. The DOI is added at the end of the reference as in the examples below. If the articles do not have a DOI, the URL link is added with the date of access (see section 16.3 of these guidelines, ‘Electronic Sources’).

Diskul, M.L.D., R. Ninnad, A. Skinner and V. Rajatanarvin (2019) ‘Development Not Drug Control: The Evolution of Counter Narcotic Efforts in Thailand’, Journal of Illicit Economies and Development, 1(1), pp. 8088, DOI: 10.31389/jied.16

Lafleur, J-M. and M. Martiniello (2009) ‘Musiques, musiciens et participation électorale des citoyens issus de l’immigration: le cas des élections présidentielles américaines de 2008’, Revue européenne des migrations internationales, 25(2), pp. 101–118, DOI: 10.4000/remi.4954

Meyerovitch, E. (1959) ‘The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt’, Diogenes, 25, pp. 84–117.

Muldoon, D.D. (1987) ‘Daily Life of the Mountain Rapper’, Journal of the West, 26, October, pp. 14–20.

Magazine and Newspaper Articles

Koller, F. (2008) ‘A Bruxelles, le dalaï-lama appelle à faire pression sur Pékin’, Le Temps, 5 December, (accessed on 20 July 2020).

For online newspaper articles see section 16.3 on ‘Electronic Sources’ below.

News Services

Hafezi, P. and F. Dahl (2009) Iran Rules Out Annulment, Tehran Crowds Gather, Reuters, 16 June, (accessed on 20 July 2020).

News Releases

SECO (Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs) (2007) Doris Leuthard Signs a Memorandum of Understanding with India on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights, press release, 7 August.

Unpublished and Informally Published Material (Dissertations, Theses, Speeches, Papers Presented at Meetings, Working Papers, etc.)

Michel, L. (2013) Key Factors Influencing Decision-Making on Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Cambodia, unpublished MSc Thesis (Bern: University of Bern), (accessed on 16 March 2015).

Beauregard, C. and D. Proulx (2006) Les mécanismes de contrôle des infrastructures dans les municipalités, paper presented at the 85th Assises annuelles de l’Union des municipalités du Québec, Quebec, 27–29 April.

Michaelowa, A. and K. Michaelowa (2010) Coding Error or Statistical Embellishment? The Political Economy of Reporting Climate Aid, CIS Working Paper No. 56 (Zurich: Center for Comparative and International Studies, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich).

Documents of International Bodies

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) (2014) World Investment Report 2014. Investing in the SDGs: An Action Plan (New York and Geneva: United Nations), (accessed on 7 May 2015).

OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) and WTO (World Trade Organization) (2007) Aid for Trade at a Glance 2007, vol. 1, 1st Global Review, vol. 2, Country and Agency Chapters (Paris and Geneva: OECD–WTO).

Symbols are frequently attributed to documents of international bodies. When this is the case, the mere mention of this symbol is enough to easily find the document on the Internet; it is then not necessary to mention the electronic identifier or the access date.

WHO (World Health Organization) (2005) Presentation by Mr. Bill Gates, Co-founder of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation at the Fifty-eighth World Health Assembly, Monday, 16 May 2005, A58/DIV/8.

Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty (2012) Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights, Magdalena Sepulveda Carmona, UN doc. A/67/278, 9 August.

Electronic Sources

When citing an electronic document (book, journal, news release, dissertation, speech, document of an international body, etc.), be it solely an electronic document or also available in printed form, the aim is to record it as fully as possible, providing the same information that would be given for its printed counterpart, with the addition of an electronic identifier and the date on which the document was last accessed by the author(s). Please always add this access date to the source (if it is not a DOI, see below), whether the page is still active or no longer available at the given URL and a new URL cannot be provided.

FDFA (Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs) (2010) Switzerland: Host State/Suisse, Etat hôte (Bern: FDFA), (accessed on 3 April 2012).

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) (2001) Information and Documentation: Bibliographic References, part 2, Electronic Documents or Parts Thereof: Excerpts from International Standard ISO 690-2 (Ottawa: National Library of Canada), (accessed on 3 January 2011).

Titthara, M. and D. Boyle (2012) ‘Kingdom’s Arable Land all but Gone’, Phnom Penh Post, 1 March,’s-arable-land-all-gone (accessed on 16 March 2015).

UN Millennium Project (2005) Task Force on Hunger Halving Hunger: It Can Be Done (London: Earthscan), (accessed on 3 January 2011).

WTO (World Trade Organization) (2009) Protectionism Cannot Be ‘Smart’, Lamy Tells Australian Think-Tank, speech given by Pascal Lamy on 2 March, (accessed on 3 January 2011).

Electronic Identifiers: DOI, permanent URL, and URL

Whenever an electronic document has a more permanent—and shorter—source identifier than the ‘uniform resource locator’ (URL), such as a ‘digital object identifier’ (DOI) or a ‘permanent URL’, please use this identifier. When a DOI is provided you need not report the access date.

OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) (2011) OECD Employment Outlook 2011 (Paris: OECD), DOI: 10.1787/empl_outlook-2011-en

Pagination and Locators

If you refer to a particular passage of a long and unpaginated electronic document, you may use the nearest subhead as a locator in the text citation.


Text citation

However, developing countries claim that Part IV has been without practical value as it does not contain any obligations for developed countries (WTO, 2011, under ‘General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – Goods’).

Bibliographic entry

WTO (World Trade Organization) (2011) Work on Special and Differential Provisions, (accessed on 31 January 2011).

Citing Web Pages

The bibliographic entry for a web page should mention the name of the author (often the site owner or sponsor), the date, the page title (if it has one), the page address and the access date. If the web page is not dated, use the access date instead.


Text citation

Our priorities are to produce and disseminate knowledge to contribute to progress among the global scientific community, enrich the study of global challenges, and offer international actors useful analyses for the resolution of contemporary international problems (Graduate Institute, 2012).

Bibliographic entry

Graduate Institute (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies) (2012) Research, (accessed on 3 April 2012).

The bibliographic entry for the home page of the institute in the example above would be:

Graduate Institute (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies) (2011) (accessed on 31 January 2011).

Annex – Example for Copyright Permission Application

If graphics are not free of copyright, the author must provide proof of having acquired the reproduction rights. A template text for requesting copyright clearance via email or letter can be found below, in English and in French.

In English

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am currently writing an article for the journal International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement published by Brill-Nijhoff (hard-copy, English Version) and by the Graduate Institute (electronic version and French version). I write to you to request permission to include the following material in my article:

Excerpt/figure/table details – including page numbers, and figure/table numbers


Title of book, journal, website, etc.:

ISBN/issue number:


Date of publication:

I would like to receive non-exclusive World, including USA, rights to this material in all languages and in print and electronic format.

The series in which the article will be published is written for a professional and academic audience. I will make full acknowledgement in the usual manner.

If you do not control the copyright to this material, please advise me to whom I should apply.

I would be most grateful if you could provide an answer to me by [suggest reasonable deadline – make sure that this is earlier than your own actual deadline to allow time for any potential complications]. Many thanks for your assistance.

Yours sincerely,

En Français

Chère Madame/Cher Monsieur,

Je suis en train d’écrire un article pour la Revue internationale de politique de développement | International Development Policy qui sera publié par la maison d’édition Brill-Nijhoff (version anglaise) et l'Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement (version électronique et version française). Je vous écris pour demander votre autorisation à inclure le matériel ci-dessous dans mon texte:

Détails de l’extrait/graphique/illustration/tableau – y compris les numéros de page et de graphique/illustration/tableau;


Titre de la source (livre, revue, journal, site web);

ISBN/numéro de publication;

Maison de presse;

Date de publication;

Je souhaiterais obtenir le droit non exclusif à la publication dans le monde entier, Etats-Unis inclus, en tout langue et en format papier et électronique.

L’ouvrage s’adresse à un public professionnel et académique. La source sera dûment référencée dans le texte.

Au cas où vous ne seriez pas le titulaire des droits relatifs à ce matériel, je vous serais très reconnaissante de me signaler qui je dois contacter.

Je vous saurais gré de bien vouloir me répondre d’ici le [suggérez une date raisonnable, tout en laissant assez de temps pour pouvoir résoudre éventuelles complications avant la date de remise du manuscrit à votre éditeur].

Madame/Monsieur, je vous remercie de votre collaboration.


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