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Annexes | Multilateral Approaches to Mobility in the MENA region

Daniel Naujoks

Abstract

Annex to the chapter Naujoks, D. (2022) Multilateral Approaches to Mobility in the Middle East and North Africa RegionInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 14 | 2022, http://journals.openedition.org/poldev/4795

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Table 3A1 Coding scheme for mobility keywords in development plans

#

Node-name

Description

Comment

Migration

Automatic code:

English:

migra* OR immigra* OR emigra* OR inmigra* OR outmigra*

French:

migra* OR immigra* OR emigra*

Spanish:

migra* OR inmigra* OR immigra* OR emigra*

Manual check:

Note that there is an automatic uncode for IOM in 1.17 below.

References to data migration or animal migration need to be uncoded manually.

This captures all permutations of migrant, immigrant, emigrant, migrate, migration and their plural forms.

Diaspora

Automatic code:

English:

diasp*

French:

diasp*

Spanish:

diásp* OR diasp*

Refugee

Automatic code:

English:

refuge* OR asyl*

French:

réfug* OR refug* OR asile

Spanish:

refugi* OR asil*

Manual check:

Note that there is an automatic uncode for UNHCR in 1.18 below.

Spanish:

Uncode: Refugios Dignos para Proteger a la Población en caso de Emergencias o Desastres Naturales

Displaced

Automatic code:

English:

displac* OR IDP*

French:

déplac* OR deplac* OR PDIP*

Spanish:

desplaz* OR PSD OR PDI OR PID

Manual check:

The acronym IDP is often mentioned in the list of abbreviations in the beginning of the document but this is not a substantial reference. There is a relatively easy way of uncoding them.

After opening “reference text”, scroll though the text and only look at the first 1-2 references in a country document. The change of countries/documents is clearly marked with the blue hyperlink.

If the first 1-2 references have only the term IDP, or list of acronyms this is an indication that this is a mention in the list of abbreviation. In this case:

click the hyperlink for the document. Then a new tab opens in NVivo with the actual pdf/word doc.

Use ctrl+F and IDP to find the reference. If this is actually a list of abbreviation, highlight all text that is coded in the document itself and uncode manually the normal way.

Then close the tab and go back to the tab with all reference text.

French

déplacement may refer to UN staff getting around in the country

Spanish

uncode: planes de desarrollo integral (pDi)

PDIP = personnes déplacées à l’intérieur de leur propre pays.

PSD= Población en Situación de Desplazamiento.

PDI= Personas desplazadas en el interior del país

PID= Personas internamente desplazadas

DIs= Desplazados internos

Remittances

Automatic code:

English:

remit*

French:

transfert*

Spanish:

remesa*

Manual check:

English:

“Remit” can also refer to the task or area of activity officially assigned to an organization (“the remit of the UN”), which needs to be uncoded.

French:

‘transfert” is not only related to remittances but to all kind of transfers (e.g. budget transfers). This needs to be uncoded manually.

return

Automatic code:

English:

return* OR repatria*

French:

rapatri* OR retour*

Spanish:

repatri* OR retorn*

Manual check:

English:

return can also refer to financial returns or the like and thus be uncoded

Spanish:

retorno can also refer to financial returns or the like and thus be uncoded

Expatriate

Automatic code:

English:

expatriat* OR overseas OR foreigner*

French:

expatri* OR étrang* OR etrang OR exterieur* OR extérieur* OR outremer

Spanish:

expatria* OR extranj* OR exteri*

Manual check:

Note that there is an automatic uncode in 1.16 below.

English:

While in some cases, “overseas Indians’ or “overseas Chinese” are correct migration codes, the keyword overseas can also be used in other contexts and needs to be uncoded.

This coding category is subsidiary to ‘migration’. This means that it attempts to catch migration references that are not captured by the migra* string. But we want to avoid double counting. For this reason, “overseas migrant” (and similar permutations) should be uncoded here (but still count as a migration reference under the migration node).

For this reason, there is also an automatic uncode for “overseas remittances”.

French:

“extérieur” sometimes refers to Senegalais a l’ extérieur etc but it can also refer to non-migration ‘outside factors’ and needs to be uncoded in these cases.

Also FDI is called investissements étrangers directs. This is already taken out via automatic uncode but some iterations of this (including where the words are distorted for automatic uncoding by the use of – dashes) need to be taken out.

Spanish:

“exterior” can also refer to non-migration ‘outside factors’ and needs to be uncoded in these cases.

FDI is called inversiones extranjeras directas. This is already taken out via automatic uncode but some iterations of this (including where the words are distorted for automatic uncoding by the use of – dashes) need to be taken out.

Citizenship

Automatic code:

English:

citizensh* OR nationalit* OR stateless* OR naturalization OR naturalized OR naturalisation OR naturalised

French:

citoyeni* OR nationalit* OR apatrid* OR naturalisation OR naturalis*

Spanish:

nacionalidad* OR ciudadanía* OR ciudadania* OR apátrid* OR apatrid* OR naturalización OR naturalizacion OR naturalizad*

Manual check:

All

nationality sometimes refers to ethnic groups, not to the legal status of citizenship and has to be uncoded in these cases

in some cases, the text says “there live people of all nationalities”. This is a migration reference, not a nationality reference.

Spanish:

‘ciudadania’ is often referred to as ‘citizenry’ (all citizens together), instead of the legal status of citizenship. This needs to be uncoded manually.

Uncode: Naturalización de la violencia.

Human smuggling

Automatic code:

English:

"human smuggling" OR "smuggling in persons" OR "smuggling in people" OR "human smuggler" OR "human smugglers" OR "migrant smuggling” OR "migrant smuggler” OR "migrant smugglers”

French:

"contrebande de personnes" OR "contrebande d'êtres humains" OR "contrebande de migrants" OR "passage de personnes" OR "passage d'êtres humains"

Spanish:

"contrabando de seres humanos" OR "contrabando de migrantes" OR "contrabando de personas" OR "contrabando humano"

Trafficking in persons

Automatic code:

English:

"human trafficking" OR "trafficking in people" OR "trafficking in persons" OR "people trafficking" OR "human trafficker" OR "trafficking victim" OR "trafficking victims" OR "victims of trafficking"

French:

"trafic d'êtres humains" OR "trafic illicite des migrants" OR "trafic d'etres humains" OR "trafic des personnes" OR "trafic de personnes" OR "traite d'êtres humains" OR "traite des personnes" OR "traite de personnes" OR "trafiquant d'êtres humains" OR "trafiquant d'etres humains" OR "trafiquant des personnes" OR "trafiquants d'êtres humains" OR "trafiquants d'etres humains" OR "trafiquants des personnes" OR "victimes de traite" OR "victimes de la traite" OR "victimes de trafic" OR "victimes du trafic"

Spanish:

"tráfico humano" OR "tráfico ilícito de seres humanos" OR "tráfico de seres humanos" OR "tráfico de personas" OR "trata de seres humanos" OR "trata humana"

"trafico humano" OR "trafico ilícito de seres humanos" OR "trafico de seres humanos" OR "trafico de personas" OR "comercio con personas" OR "comercio de personas"

OR

"trata de personas" OR "traficante humano" OR "traficante de seres humanos" OR "traficante de personas" OR "tratante de personas" OR
"víctimas de trata" OR "victimas de trata" OR "víctimas de la trata" OR "victimas de la trata" OR "víctimas del tráfico" OR "victimas del tráfico" OR "victimas del trafico" OR "víctimas de tráfico" OR "victimas de tráfico" OR "victimas de trafico"

"tráfico humano" OR "tráfico ilícito de seres humanos" OR "tráfico de seres humanos" OR "tráfico de personas" OR "trata de seres humanos" OR "trata humana" OR "trafico humano" OR "trafico ilícito de seres humanos" OR "trafico de seres humanos" OR "trafico de personas" OR "comercio con personas" OR "comercio de personas" OR "trata de personas" OR "traficante humano" OR "traficante de seres humanos" OR "traficante de personas" OR "tratante de personas" OR "víctimas de trata" OR "victimas de trata" OR "víctimas de la trata" OR "victimas de la trata" OR "víctimas del tráfico" OR "victimas del tráfico" OR "victimas del trafico" OR "víctimas de tráfico" OR "victimas de tráfico" OR "victimas de trafico"

Deportation

Automatic code:

English:

deport*

French:

expuls* OR déport* OR deport*

Spanish:

deporta* OR expuls*

Manual check:

Spanish:

“deportado/a” can also make a reference to a particular story that should be in the headlines

Unaccompanied minor

Automatic code:

English:

"unaccompanied minor" OR "unaccompanied child" OR "unaccompanied minors" OR "unaccompanied children"

French:

"mineurs non accompagnés" OR "mineurs nonaccompagnés" OR "mineur non accompagné" OR "mineur nonaccompagné" OR "enfants non accompagnés" OR "enfant non accompagné" OR "enfants nonaccompagnés" OR "enfant nonaccompagné"

Spanish:

"menores no acompañados" OR "menores noacompañados" OR "menores extranjeros no acompañados" OR "menores extranjeros noacompañados" OR "niñas noacompañadas"

"niñas noacompañados" OR "niños noacompañados" OR "niñas no acompañadas"

"niñas no acompañados" OR "niños no acompañados"

“niños noacompañados” to capture phrases such as “niños y niñas noacompañados

Relocate

Automatic code:

English:

resettle* OR relocate*

French:

réinstall* OR reinstall*

Spanish:

reasenta* OR reubica*

Reinstallation can be used both for international resettlement and for internal relocation.

Mobility

Automatic code:

English:

"human mobility"

French:

"mobilité humaine"

Spanish:

"movilidad humana"

Global citizenship

Automatic code:

English:

"global citizenship" OR "universal citizenship" OR "world citizenship"

French:

"citoyenneté globale" OR "citoyennete globale" OR "citoyenneté mundiale" OR "citoyennete mondiale" OR "citoyenneté universale"

Spanish:

"ciudadania universal" OR "ciudadania global" OR "ciudadania mundial"

Internal migration

Automatic code:

English:

"internal migration" OR "internal migrant" OR "internal migrants" OR "urban migrant" OR "urban migrants" OR "urban migration" OR "rural migrant" OR "rural migrants" OR "rural migrant" OR "rural migration" OR "domestic migrants" OR "domestic migrant" OR "domestic migration"

French:

"migration interne" OR "migrations internes" OR "migrant interne" OR "migrants interne" OR "migrants internes" OR "migration urbaine" OR "migration urbain" OR "migrations urbaines" OR "migrant urbain" OR "migrants urbain" OR "migrants urbaines" OR "migration rurale" OR "migrations rurales" OR "migrations rural" OR "migrant rural" OR "migrants rural" OR "migrants ruraux" OR "migration domestique" OR "migrations domestiques" OR "migrant domestique" OR "migrants domestique" OR "migrants domestiques"

Spanish:

"migración interna" OR "migracion interna" OR "migraciones internas" OR "migrante interno" OR "migrantes internos" OR "migrante interna" OR "migrantes internas" OR "migración urbana" OR "migracion urbana" OR "migraciones urbanas" OR "migrante urbano" OR "migrantes urbanos" OR "migrante urbana" OR "migrantes urbanas" OR "migración rural" OR "migracion rural" OR "migraciones rurales" OR "migrante rural" OR "migrantes rural" OR "migrante rural" OR "migrantes rural"

The Spanish search for “migrante domestico” results mostly in hits on domestic workers, which is why it was omitted.

Step 2: Since every time a document mentions the Int Organization for MIGRATION or the UN High Commissioner for REFUGEES these keywords are counted, we first want to automatically uncode them and then in the next step recode then as IOM/UNHCR. This needs to be run AFTER executing the above automatic code commands (1.1-1.13)

IOM

Automatic uncode:

English

"International Organization for Migration" OR "International Organization of Migration" OR "International Organisation for Migration" OR "International Organisation of Migration" OR "Organisation Mondiale de la Migration"

French:

"Organisation Internationale pour les Migrations" OR "Organisation Internationale pour la Migration" OR "Organisation Internationale de la Migration"

Spanish:

"Organización Internacional Para las Migraciones" OR "Organizacion Internacional Para las Migraciones" OR "Organización Internacional Para la Migracion" OR "Organizacion Internacional Para la Migracion" OR "Organización Internacional de las Migracion" OR "Organizacion Internacional de las Migracion" OR "Organización Internacional Para la Migración" OR "Organizacion Internacional Para la Migración" OR "Organización Internacional de las Migración" OR "Organizacion Internacional de las Migración"

Manual check:

Some misspellings are not covered by the automatic code. These need to be coded manually. E.g. sometimes the texts have dashes Refu-gee … or Organi- zation that will not be picked up. And these need to be uncoded as general ref to “migration/refugees”

UNHCR

Automatic uncode:

English:

"High Commissioner for Refugees" OR "High Commissioner of Refugees" OR "High Commission for Refugees" OR "High Commission of Refugees" OR "Refugee High Commissioner" OR "Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees" OR "Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees"

French:

"commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés" OR "commissariat des Nations unies pour réfugiés" OR "commission des Nations unies pour les réfugiés" OR "Commissariat des réfugiés" OR "Haut-Commissariat aux Réfugiés"

Spanish:

"Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados" OR "Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para Refugiados" OR "Comisión de las Naciones Unidas para Refugiados" OR "Comision de las Naciones Unidas para Refugiados" OR "Comisión de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados" OR "Comision de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados"

Manual check:

Some misspellings are not covered by the automatic code. These need to be uncoded manually. E.g. sometimes the texts have dashes Refu-gee … or Organi- zation that will not be picked up. And these need to be uncoded as general ref to “migration/refugees”

Uncode false expatriate

Automatic uncode:

English:

"overseas development" OR "overseas assistance" OR "overseas aid" OR "overseas territories" or "overseas territory" OR "overseas remittances" OR "overseas worker remittances" OR "overseas workers remittances" OR "overseas markets" OR "overseas market"

French:

"investissements étrangers" OR "investissements etrangers" OR "investissement étranger" OR "investissement etranger" OR "territoire Outremer" OR "territoires Outremer"

Spanish

"inversiones extranjeras" OR "inversiónes extranjeras" OR "inversion extranjera" OR "inversión extranjera" OR "relaciones exteriors" OR "politica exterior" OR "comercio exterior"

Uncode migrant remittances from migration

Mentions to “migrant remittances” would count twice if they are counted as migration and remittance reference. Thus, they need to be uncoded from the migration count.

English:

"migrant remittances” OR "migrant remittance" OR "migrants remittances” OR "migrants remit" OR "trafficking of migrants" OR "migrant trafficking" OR "smuggling of migrants" OR "migrant smuggling" OR "smugglers of migrants" OR "migrant smugglers"

French:

"transferts des migrants" OR "transferts de migrants" OR "migrants transfèrent" OR "migrants transferent" OR "contrebande de migrants"

Spanish:

"remesas de los emigrantes" OR "remesas de emigrantes" OR "remesas de los migrantes" OR "remesas de migrantes" OR "contrabando de migrantes"

Source: Author.

Table 3A2 Components and coding categories for the Index of Mobility Inclusion

  • 1 UNDP (2014) Why, What and How to Measure? A User’s Guide to Measuring Rule of Law (New York: Justic (...)

Major comparison category

Level code

Description

Intensity

Total references

No intensity

0

Reference count 0

Low intensity

1

Reference count 1-19

Medium intensity

2

Reference count 20-74

High intensity

3

Reference count >75

Migration references

No intensity

0

Reference count 0

Low intensity

1

Reference count 1-15

Medium intensity

2

Reference count 16-49

High intensity

3

Reference count >50

Refugee and displacement references

No intensity

0

Reference count 0

Low intensity

1

Reference count 1-20

Medium intensity

2

Reference count 21-49

High intensity

3

Reference count >50

Modality

No mention

0

A “no intensity” automatically leads to a “no mention.”

In narrative

1

The plan includes mobility only in the situation analysis or the narrative but not in the actionable section on outcomes and results.

Low-priority

2

While the majority of references are outside the key outcomes and priorities, there is a minor incorporation of mobility in the results framework. A minor incorporation consists in up to 2 references in specific indicators or outcomes.

Medium-priority

3

The outcomes and priorities mention mobility in a meaningful way, e.g. as part of outcomes or indicators. A medium-priority code requires 3 or more explicit references in indicators and outcomes. But the plan has fewer than 6 meaningful mentions in indicators.

High-priority

4

A thorough integration of mobility questions in the results, key outcomes and priorities that are jointly implemented and included in the monitoring and evaluation framework. This requires at least 6 meaningful indicators.

Based on the SMART indicator methodology, the IMI defines indicators as meaningful when they are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-bound.1 Meaningful indicators have a clear migration focus (as opposed to mentioning migrants among a long list of potential target groups), and involve clear, achievable actions by the UN Country Team.

Examples for indicator mentions that do not meet this threshold include repeating the wording of SDG target 8.8 to “Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment" or broadly envisioning that the UN system will be “instrumental in providing support to the large numbers of refugees and migrants that the country is hosting.”

Dimensionality

No dimensionality

0

No groups or dimensions.

Low dimensionality

1

Not more than 2 groups AND not more than 2 dimensions.

Medium-low dimensionality

2

3 or more groups but fewer than 3 dimensions OR 2 different groups in more than 2 dimensions.

Medium-high dimensionality

3

More than 3 different mobile populations AND more than three dimensions (in total, not for each population).

High dimensionality

4

More than 4 different mobile populations AND more than three dimensions (in total, not for each population).

For dimensions, the IMI counts:

Economy/ employment

health

education

rule of law/justice (inclusive of violence related to organized crime)

Conflict/peace

environment

agriculture

other

For groups, the IMI counts:

Regular immigrants: code this if immigrants are mentioned but no specification

Irregular immigrants

Transit migrants

Returnees

Emigrants: The boundary between emigrants and diaspora is fluid. We only want to code it as different groups if it is clear from the document that these groups are actually different. For example, India has very different policies for temporary labor emigrants compared to outreach to their established diasporas. But if the term 'diaspora' is used for emigrants in general, we may just code 1 group, not two.

Diaspora

Refugees hosted in the country: Here the UNDAF country is the host country, e.g. Jordan's UNDAF speaking about Syrian refugees.

Own refugees residing abroad: Here the UNDAF country is the country of origin, e.g. Syria's UNDAF speaking about Syrian refugees in the region.

IDPs

Climate migrants

Other

Only these broad groups of mobile populations are coded as groups, whereas a focus on different sub-groups, such as Lebanon’s focus on Syrian or Palestine refugees would not be coded as two distinct groups for the IMI. But we note it in the comments.

For dimensions, we code:

Economy and employment

Health

Food security

Education

Social protection and social services

Rule of law, justice (inclusive of violence related to organized crime) and social cohesion

Conflict, peace, and security

Environment and disaster

Agriculture

Other

Any focus on a specific policy dimension is counted, irrespective of which target population they are referring to. The minimum threshold is at least a weak link to policy interventions or to substantial activities.

IMI category

Zero

0

A zero intensity automatically leads to a zero count in the other components of the IMI.

Low

1

Aggregate IMI score of 1-5.

Medium

2

Aggregate IMI score of 6-8.

High

3

Aggregate IMI score of 9-11.

Source : author

Table 3A3 Mobility facts in the MENA region: Emigration and Remittance

Sources: Levels of mobility references: Author; emigrant and remittance data: author’s calculations based on World Bank’s World Development Indicators database.

Table 3A4 Mobility facts in the MENA region: Immigration and Refugees

Sources: Levels of mobility references: Author; emigrant and remittance data: author’s calculations based on World Bank’s World Development Indicators database.

Note: Table sorted in descending order by immigrant stock as share of population. As there is no estimate for refugees in Bahrain available for 2007, the calculation is based on 1 refugee for 2006. The extremely low number of refugees hosted in 2006, namely, one refugee, explains the high change in percentage over the last 10 year.

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Notes

1 UNDP (2014) Why, What and How to Measure? A User’s Guide to Measuring Rule of Law (New York: Justice and Security Programmes, UNDP) p. 41.

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List of illustrations

Credits Sources: Levels of mobility references: Author; emigrant and remittance data: author’s calculations based on World Bank’s World Development Indicators database.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/poldev/docannexe/image/4548/img-1.png
File image/png, 1.0M
Credits Sources: Levels of mobility references: Author; emigrant and remittance data: author’s calculations based on World Bank’s World Development Indicators database.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/poldev/docannexe/image/4548/img-2.png
File image/png, 1.1M
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Cite this article

Electronic reference

Daniel Naujoks, Annexes | Multilateral Approaches to Mobility in the MENA regionInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement [Online], 14 | 2022, Online since 25 April 2022, connection on 01 July 2022. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/poldev/4548; DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/poldev.4548

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About the author

Daniel Naujoks

Daniel Naujoks is a lecturer in international and public affairs and director a.i. of the International Organization and UN Studies program at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs. He is author of Migration, Citizenship, and Development (2013, Oxford University Press) and his research focuses on global governance, migration, refugees, citizenship, multilateralism and global development. He regularly advises the United Nations and serves as chair of the International Studies Association’s Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Migration Studies section.

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International Development Policy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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