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Ghosts of Empire in Egypt

The Turkish Ambassador's Revenge
Fantômes d'Empire en Égypte: la vengeance de l'ambassadeur turc
Elizabeth Bishop
p. 111-130

Résumés

L’article « Fantômes d’Empire en Égypte » propose une nouvelle approche de la guerre froide. L'histoire complète de la vengeance de l'ambassadeur de Turquie en Égypte est restée secrète jusqu'à ce que les journaux aient offert tous les détails d'un complot visant clairement à mettre en scène: « un coup militaire, assassinat de Gamal Abdul Nasser et d'autres dirigeants de la révolution, et rétablissant la monarchie. » Le Premier ministre britannique Anthony Eden a conclu que le maintien des intérêts britanniques au Moyen-Orient exigeait la destitution de Nasser du pouvoir, prévoyant de l'isoler en Égypte, plaçant une « pression progressive sur l'économie égyptienne pour susciter le mécontentement populaire vis-à-vis du régime militaire ».

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Introduction

  • 1 Republic of Egypt, 1954, Ministry of War, Meteorological Department, Weather Report on the for Janu (...)

1The morning of Tuesday, 5 January 1954, at 9:30, Ahmed Hulûsi Fuad Tugay arrived at Cairo airport in a limousine. The weather was “cold” with “light scattered coastal showers1.” Tugay was dressed for the coldest day of his diplomatic career, because the Republic of Egypt was deporting him for abuse of official privileges.

2A photograph shows Turkey’s first diplomat to be declared persona non grata wearing a vested tartan suit with a dark tie and matching pocket square, a Homburg hat, and winter gloves. While Ayşegül Sever alleges, “the Egyptians–in expelling Tugay–disregarded the accepted norms of international law by withdrawing [his] diplomatic immunity before he left the country” (2016 : 128, no. 14), evidence suggests the Turkish ambassador used the guise of diplomacy to represent ex-Ottoman interests in Egypt; in this sense, he was a “phantom of Empire.”

3Evidence such as this photograph contributes to a larger revisionist push to undo methodological nationalisms in Cold War history (Provence 2011, 2017). Historians Fabien Oppermann (2019) and Claude Hourdel (2011) points to the Château de Champs-sur-Marne as a designated residence for Africa’s postcolonial heads of state. Champs-sur-Marne’s first official guest was the Sultan of Morocco Mohammed V and his family (Hourdel 2011, p. 32); this building (confiscated by the Crown, sold to the King’s natural daughter, eventually donated to the State for a presidential residence) offers metaphors for diplomacy during the first decade of the United Nations (Oppermann 2019). Such compelling observations as those of Oppermann and Hourdel inspire queries regarding institutions and laws from three distinct historical periods–from Egypt’s Ottoman rulers, through the World War II, and into the era of New Nations (Bradley 2012; Laurens 1999, Westad 2012).

  • 2 “Turkey Plans Action”, Iraq Times, 7 January 1954.

4With regard to the sixty-four-year-old Tugay: if the indignity of travelling in an automobile bereft of Turkish flags were not sufficient, at the airport he was subjected to additional harassment. Egyptian officials demanded his wallet. Whether it was fine calfskin or Louis Vuitton canvas, Tugay’s wallet contained pounds and dollars exceeding legal amounts, so officials instructed the ex-diplomat to empty his pockets, handing the bills and coins to the airport manager, who turned the money over to the Embassy’s counselor2. Egyptian customs officer’s straying fingers, probing the former ambassador’s cherished billfold (warm, perhaps, from its protected place in outer clothing), bears overtones of an indecent assault. This was both private violation and public humiliation, since the photograph attests that news reporters witnessed everything (Bardakçı, 2017 : 234).

  • 3 U.K. National Archives, F.O. 371/111069-0005. I’m grateful to Gökser Gökçay for drawing this to my (...)
  • 4 “Former Turkish Ambassador Threatens Revenge for His Expulsion”, Ahram, 6 January 1954. I’m gratefu (...)

5Walking straight past U.K. ambassador Sir Ralph Stevenson3, the ex-ambassador’s final words in Egypt were, “I will have my revenge4.”

Sins of the Fathers

  • 5 İskender Kardaslar, « Sehit Babasi Bir Kahraman Musir Deli Fuad Pasa », canakkalegundem.net, 21 Apr (...)

6While the Republic of Turkey and the Arab Republic of Egypt quickly repaired official relations, this ex-ambassador activated the Imperial Ottoman family’s personal networks, gaining access to resources scattered through multiple post-Ottoman jurisdictions (Citino, 2008). Before World War I, Egypt and İstanbul were connected in many, overlapping ways. Like his father, Tugay was not born into the Imperial Ottoman family; unlike his father, he was born in the Imperial capital, İstanbul. Son of Müşir “Deli” Fuad Paşa (born in Egypt, served in Egypt’s army)5.

7Tugay’s father’s military profession encouraged personal allegiances and fluid structures (Pierce, 1993, p. 26). Educated at Lycée Saint-Joseph, then Lycée Saint-Michel, then the Imperial Lycée de Galatsaray, Tugay chose to study military medicine. As his bride, he chose the daughter of Mahmud Muhtar Paşa, a minister in Ibrahim Hakkı Paşa’s cabinet responsible for commissioning Reşadiye-class (“dreadnought”) battleships for a revitalized Ottoman Navy (Hills and Bell, n.d.; Seligmann, 2016).

8Tugay chose his bride from the Ottoman Imperial family’s Egyptian branch. Emine Dürriye Hanım Effendi was the eldest child and only daughter of Ni’matu’llah Hanım Effendi, called “Princess Nimet”, herself youngest daughter of Isma'il Paşa (Khedive of Egypt, 1863-1879). Having chosen a strategy of endogamous marriage for sons (Cuno, 2015: 36), the daughters in Khedive Ismail’s family were free to marry men of lesser status, and Princess Nimet chose a commoner who had earned military rank.

9During 1904, Princess Nimet moved her daughter Emine Hanım from Tokmak burnu to the Mermer konak. In his memoirs, Khedive Abbas Hilmi II considered his grandfather Ismail’s “stained glass and Italian marble and … European furniture” in dual contexts: both in terms of “lavish celebrations of the inauguration of the Suez Canal –as well as Ismail’s programs’ – questionable benefit to Egypt and its people” (Sonbol, 1998 : 5). In the move, she took “high mirrors in elaborate carved gilt frames, with matching marble-topped tables, and an upholstered drawing room set of massive carved mahogany” from her father’s residence as if they were her personal possessions (Davis, 1986 : 213).

10Marriage and real estate were loose connections between Istanbul’s suburbs and Egypt’s royals. Khedival wealth derived from a land-grab, that used administrative measures to extend the rule of law. Historian F. Robert Hunter explains nineteenth century Egypt’s official procedures: the Khedive “would send,” he relates, “an order to a provincial governor or to his inspector general, who was requested to locate and delimit a specified amount of land and to send a statement to the Department of Finance, which would issue a title deed (taqsit) to the new owner” (1982 : 106). Consequently, gendered practices developed around this new form of wealth, as when a man married a woman, using her hundred feddan as security when he leased land (Abaza, 2013 : 121).

  • 6 U.K. National Archives, F.O. 424/297/14-15.

11The Egyptian Khedive’s possessions followed dissipation of state wealth into private hands (Palabıyık 2018). Emine Hanım, born at the Khedive Ismail’s yalı at Tokmak burnu outside İstanbul, as an adult followed the custom of primogeniture used in the U.K., and refused official titles since “she was the daughter of a princess and not of a prince, and therefore had no right” (Hassan, 2000 : 43). Later, London diplomats’ reports described Emine Hanım and Fuad Tugay (Deighton 2012). Among foreigners, she was “a pleasant woman and an excellent linguist”, and he was “pleasant to deal with, accustomed to European ways, enjoys a good cigar, not very clever, and believed to be fairly straight6.”

Royals After Empire

12During World War I, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers. The United Kingdom declared a protectorate over Egypt, deporting the last Khedive 'Abbās Ḥilmī pasha (son of Tewfik paşa) to Geneva, then granting his uncle Hussein Kamel (Khedive Ismail’s second son) the title of “Sultan.” Even after the Empire’s collapse, Turkish language indicates the continuing connections between the Ottoman imperial family and Egypt. Princess Nimet was youngest sister of King Fuad, “the last sovereign of Egypt at whose court Turkish was spoken” (Tugay, 1963 : 62).

13After the war, a constitution granted Egypt an independent monarchy (1923). The nation’s new constitution permitted a Regent (art. 41) and Council of Ministers (art. 55) to share tasks of public administration. Egypt’s constitution, while it prohibited government ministers from buying or renting state property (art. 64), placed no such restrictions on the royal family. Inheritance of the throne was exempt from legislative control (art. 156); and all “rights of royal dignity” were preserved (art. 158).

14When the Kemalist government deported the Imperial family from İstanbul (1924), Prince Şehzade Ömer Faruk Efendi moved to France. Son of the last caliph Abdulmecid Efendi, he was descended from Mehmed VI Vahideddin as well. According to a relative, he convened a “family council” consisting of his cousin-once-removed and wife Sabiha Sultan, their relative the grandson of Sultan Murad V Osman Fuad, and a former cabinet minister. The purpose of this “family council” was to pay children’s school fees, and identify suitable marriage partners for daughters outside France. This was the case for two daughters, Sahiba Hatice Hayriye Ayşe Dürrüşehvar Sultan, and Sahiba Niloufer Khanum Sultan, who married two sons of the Nizam of Hyderabad (Basaran, 2019). After the wedding, the brides’ family members became eligible for Hyderabad civil list pensions (Bardakçı, 2017 : 124).

  • 7 “Turks Establish Embassy”, FBIS-FRB-43-255, 25 October 1943.
  • 8 According to Manx National Heritage (Acc No. MS 10859), Stevenson and Tugay both served in Spain (S (...)
  • 9 “Hulusi Tugay”, FBIS-FRB-47-283, 31 January 1947.

15Emine Hanım asked her husband to renounce military medicine for diplomacy; in this way, newly-married Tugay came to serve Turkey’s first embassy in Tokyo as chargé d'affaires (1925-1929). He subsequently moved to the Republic of China’s provisional capital at Nanking (1929-1931), before being appointed Turkey’s ambassador to the fascist-supported Albanian Kingdom and Franco’s Spain, before eventually returning to China7 (1944-1947).8 In Taipei, Tugay mingled sociably with diplomats representing both Egypt and the U.K.9. While rents from the Marg village paid palais Sheykh Mansour’s bills, Emine Hanım gained no specific legal status as a diplomat’s wife.

16Egypt’s constitution guaranteed King Fuad a civil list income of £E (egyptian pounds) 150,000 a year (art. 160). His cousin and first wife Princess Şivekâr İbrahim received slightly less than three-quarters the amount he did, as did each member of his family (art. 161). With this income, the Princess entertained lavishly throughout her life, with “colored tents in her glorious park, with French, Italian, and Russian food” (Fahmy, 2006: 23). The newly-rich royal family offered possible marriage partners to recently deported Şehzade Ömer Faruk Efendi and his daughters.

17The Ottoman relatives’ poverty (Raafat, 1994: 120) prompted his family – Neslişah Sultan, Hanzade Sultan, and Nagla-Hebatullah Sultan – to leave France. They moved into a modest stucco villa in Maadi, a half-hour’s drive from the Egypt’s king’s Qobba Palace (Raafat, 1994: 120). At the four-hundred-room Qobba, nothing – not King Fuad I and Queen Nazli Sabri’s unhappy marriage, not the King’s unexpected heart attack and death during April 1936 – was permitted to subdue a steady hum of gaiety.

18Among Egypt’s royal family, Emine Hanım’s “tinkling, delightful laugh” accompanied events leading to World War II (Hassan, 2000: 42). As Austrian police raided the headquarters of the local Nazi Party, King Farouk celebrated marriage with Queen Farida at the Qobba; while German troops marched into Czechoslovakia, his sister Princess Fawzia joined Mohamed Reza Pahlavi Shah of Iran in a spectacular wedding (Raafat 2000). Luckily, Egypt’s Constitution’s provision for a regency council permitted Egypt’s royal family and their Imperial Ottoman relatives to host and attend raucous parties.

  • 10 “Egypt’s Princes and Princesses Figure in Disgraceful Adventures”, Washington Post, 11 January 1920

19While the Wehrmacht stormed into France, as the Luftwaffe launched large-scale attacks on Great Britain, remaining items from Khedive Ismael’s massive silver surtout de table continued to decorate the Qobba Palace’s official dining room (to which Ömer Faruk Efendi’s rank assured invitations for himself and his daughters). Young King Farouk waived protocol permitting guests “who wanted to drink [alcohol to] do so even if he did not10.” A half-hour’s drive from the Qobba and its frenzied parties, a twentieth-century village rose from the Khedives’ institution of real estate and the protections Egypt’s constitution offered the royal family.

20In Marg, initially part of a Khedival hunting lodge, four date trees stood in front of the house (Dalīl, 1952, 348). Princess Nimet (King Fuad’s youngest sister who absconded with the furniture at Tokmak burnu yalı), supplemented her Egyptian civil list income when at Marg she “rebuilt part of the village with two-floored buildings” while her husband the military officer collected rents (Tugay, 1963: 69; Hassan, 2002: 39). From local tenants’ payments, Princess Nimet supervised construction of a terrace around the former hunting lodge.

21A relative recalled: “grounds that were partly desert and marsh”; later, the marshes were drained, and gardeners created lawns, a golf course, tennis courts, and fruit groves surrounded by hedges (Hassan, 2010 : 89). A relative described the estate, “not a leaf out of place, not a grain of red sand in disorder; no detail was too small to escape [Princess Nimet’s] notice, and it was this careful supervision that gave the place the air of a royal residence” (Hassan, 2002 : 89).

22Humblebragging, Princess Nimet called this home the “palais Sheykh Mansour ”, deeding it over to her daughter Emine Hanım as a wedding gift (Hassan, 2000: 43); self-deprecatingly, the bride continued to describe it as “the smallest of my great-grandfather's houses, a shooting-box” (Tugay, 1963: 99). While Parisians traded ration cards for eggs and Londoners used subway platforms as bomb shelters, Princess Nimet entertained lavishly, having a “huge marquee” set up on her terrace, “divided up into different sections, dining rooms, drawing rooms, all arranged with taste and perfectionism” at Marg (Hassan, 2000 : 42). At Emine Hanım’s house, servants greeted family and guests with a “deep téménah – a particularly Turkish way of bowing in which the right hand reaches toward the ground and then up to the chin and the forehead” (Hassan, 2000: 45, 127).

  • 11 “Ottomans in Egypt”, Ahram, 24 December 1957. I’m grateful to Yehia Hafez for drawing this to my at (...)

23Princess Nimet was more successful in transforming tenuous access to state assets (a former ruler’s hunting lodge) into a suitable lifestyle (palais Sheykh Mansour). Guests entered her “most charming place” and found “a self-portrait … [in which] she wears an evening gown and some red jewels” (Hassan, 2000: 38-41). As Emine Hanım’s cousin King Farouk inaugurated his reign with a radio broadcast from the Qobba Palace’s oak-paneled library, Ömer Faruk Efendi and his family enjoyed access to all seventy acres of the Palace’s private gardens, selling family jewels (Raafat 1994: 120), and collected wages from a fake job on an Alexandria tramline to pay for their daily expenses11.

  • 12 Turkey. Merkezı̂ Hükûmet Teşkilâtı Araştırma Projesi. Yönetim Kurulu, 1966, 62.
  • 13 U.S. National Archives, Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1802-1949; Central File: Decimal F (...)

24“Marriages – Amy Aisen Elouafi proposes – were one of the means to place roots and establish the bases of future collaboration with a wider array of prominent social figures and their followings” marriages connected “military recruitment and the gathering of loyal retainers through tangible familial ties” (Elouafi, 2007: 47). Emine Hanım’s husband Tugay was promoted in the civil service of Turkey. He became “director-general of the VI department” responsible (as a Turkish Government Organization Manual explains) for “expropriation, re-development, and demolition cases12.” He also was appointed to a high post in the III department13; according to the Manual, this was responsible for “general provisions on property rights – protection of historical, cultural, and natural assets, and – acquisition, confiscations, and restrictions” on foundation’s assets.

  • 14 “Fuat Hulusi Tugay ”, FBIS-FRB-47-093, 3 July 1947.
  • 15 “Yargıtay tarihinde bir ilk!” Sabah, 26 July 2011.

25Tugay’s service as a diplomat put him in a position to look out for his wife’s palais Sheykh Mansour. As Tugay’s father-in-law collected rent from Marg villagers, Turkey’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs Tugay advanced in the diplomatic service, with a promotion to Bucharest14. At the same time, his father-in-law was found guilty on charges of mismanaging Ottoman state assets, and sentenced to reimburse the state treasury15.

  • 16 Richard Young, “The Development of International Law”, ABA Journal, September 1953, 840.
  • 17 Elihu Lauterpacht, International Law Reports, 1955, 287.

26Official documents from different jurisdictions indicate some parameters of acceptable behavior. While some laws appeared to protect diplomats as individuals, it was not clear that these protections extended either to their property, or to the security of their family members. Even though in the U.S., title 18, sec. 112 penalized acts of violence against a diplomat; in the U.K. personal immunities were a grey area, only a diplomat’s correspondence enjoyed specific protection16. Even though Argentina’s Supreme Court accepted “inviolability of a diplomatic agent involves immunity from all jurisdiction” as a general principle, the immunity of the Austrian ambassador did not extend to: “the property of a third party17” regardless of the ambassador’s marital status.

  • 18 U.K. National Archives, F.O. 371/31566.

27In spite of all rigorous efforts to ignore World War II while it was happening, a member of the Imperial Ottoman family recalled the war as rupture, “Asia Minor would never be as lovely again, Epidaurus as magical, or buttercups in a field or bluebells in a wood as innocent; pollution, moral or real, had set in” (Hassan, 2000 : 92). In Baghdad, a coup took place and the Crown Prince sought refuge at the U.K. Embassy; in Egypt, it was the U.K. Foreign Office that planned a coup in favor of Wafd leaders against King Farouk18. As a gesture towards normalization at the end of the war, Turkey’s Republic extended to the Ottoman women (including those in Egypt) the right to use “Osmanoğlu” as a surname, and administrative permission to visit their birthplaces.

28At Qobba Palace receptions, Ömer Faruk succeeded in identifying suitable marriage partners from the Egyptian royal family for his three daughters. The eldest of Ömer Faruk’s daughters paired with her third cousin, Abbas Hilmi II’s son and heir apparent to Egypt’s throne, Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim Bey Effendi; the second married Prince Muhammad 'Ali Ibrahim Bey Effendi; and the third, Prince Amr Ibrahim Bey Effendi (Hassan, 2000 : 108). Just as Princess Nimet had helped herself to Khedival furniture, including “heavy gilt mirrors with sculptured trophies”, Ömer Faruk Efendi’s daughter Neslişah Sultan searched royal properties around Cairo for heirlooms.

  • 19 U.S. National Archives, Central File: Decimal File 867.00, Internal Affairs of States, Turkey, Poli (...)
  • 20 Ibid.

29From the palace of Khedive Ismail’s mother Hoshiyar Qadin, a marble gateway and its black-and-gilded ironwork were disassembled, then reinstalled in front of the Sultana’s villa in suburban Heliopolis (Hassan, 2000: 101). Neslişah Sultan was photographed with a diamond parure, which Abbas Hilmi II’s mother had received as congratulations for the birth of the Sultana’s father-in-law. In Turkey, a magazine asked the Sultana and her husband for “financial aid in order to promote propaganda in favor of return of Sultanate19.” Caught, the ambitious newlyweds publicly denied providing material support for “any Turkish magazine in connection with propaganda favoring the return of the Sultanate20.”

  • 21 U.S. National Archives, Central File: Decimal File 867.9111; Internal Affairs of States, Public Pre (...)
  • 22 I’m grateful to Nabil al-Tikriti for drawing this point to my attention.
  • 23 U.K. National Archives. F.O. 371/87942. I’m grateful to Gökser Gökçay for bringing this to my atten (...)
  • 24 “Trade Mission to Egypt”, 17 December 1952, FBIS-FRB-52-247; “Egyptian-Turkish Trade”, FBIS-FRB-53- (...)

30Turkey’s economy depended on export-led development, and the Empire had its role to play in this. Neslişah Sultan and her husband (“allegedly, second in succession to Egyptian throne”) arrived in İstanbul on their first visit21. Turkey began to experience economic growth at the cost of budget deficits, debt, and increasing dependence on external capital22 (2013: 78). The U.K. ambassador to Egypt lamented, “from what we have been able to observe, the tendency of the Turkish embassy here seems to have been to cultivate mainly the Egyptian upper-class elements of Turkish descent23.” With his “family connections,” Tugay was appointed Ambassador to Cairo with an eye to facilitating Turkey’s trade negotiations with Egypt24.

  • 25 “Turkish Help Seen as Cairo Talks End”, New York Times, 8 November 1943.
  • 26 “Farouk May Wed Young Cairo Girl”, New York Times, 28 December 1949.

31In spite of all rigorous efforts to ignore World War II while it was happening, the Qobba Palace failed to protect Egyptian royals. King Farouk suffered a debilitating automobile accident25, divorced Queen Farida, and suffered again when Egypt’s armed forces were defeated in Palestine (Bassiouni, 2017; Hahn, 1991; Khalidi, 2009; Rogan, 2001). Egypt’s constitution’s provisions, though, continued to protect the privacy of the royal family – including when King Farouk caught sight of the sixteen-year-old Miss Narriman Sadek, fiancée of an Egyptian economist at the United Nations26.

  • 27 “Romance Story is ‘Premature’ Egypt Declares”, Chicago Daily Tribune, 30 December 1949.
  • 28 “Sister Tries to Break Romance of Egypt’s King”, Chicago Tribune, 29 December 1949.
  • 29 “Egypt King Sets Birthday to Wed Girl”, Los Angeles Times, 29 December 1949.
  • 30 “Report Farouk ‘Takes’ Girl”, Chicago Tribune, 28 December 1969.
  • 31 “Maraghy acquitted by Alex. Assizes”, Egyptian Gazette, 15 January 1954.
  • 32 “Egypt Fetes Royal Wedding”, British Pathé, 1951.

32Around the world, Egypt’s ambassadors denied the King’s romance27.From Rome, a journalist reported that a middle aged jeweler asked the cute girl to come back another day to try her ring, summoning the King to take a look at her; Princess Fawzia attempted to dissuade her younger brother (“it must be a joke28”) from telling Miss Sadek’s fiancé to marry someone else29. The King referred payment for Miss Sadek’s dresses to the government (McLeave, 1969: 233). Her father, a civil servant resigned his post30, incurred fresh debts on the eve of the marriage31. Newsreels record a car carrying the king’s sisters from Qobba Palace to a scandalous wedding. Just as servants at Marg bowed before her mother’s guests, the Turkish ambassador’s wife Emine Hanım greeted Princess Fawzia with a téménah32 (Oscanyan, 1857: 247).

  • 33 “Wedding of King Farouk and Narriman Sadek at Cairo”, Getty Images, 1951.

33In vulgar embroidered gowns beaded with gemstones, Narriman Sadek and Princess Fawzia presented themselves before photographers; Emine Hanım stands close behind the sixteen-year-old bride33. As Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, even members of Egypt’s royal family acknowledged that newsreels of the wedding and Narriman Sadek’s gem-studded gown were not sufficient to distract Egyptians from an increasingly unpopular foreign alliances. One member of the Osmanoğlu family recalled “demonstrations of university students” and “political assassinations” from that time (Hassan, 2000: 128; see also Reid, 1982).

  • 34 “Six Egyptian Cops in Auto Die in Crash with Trolley”, Chicago Tribune, 29 December 1952.

34As newsreels of the Qobba Palace wedding faded from cinema screens, an honor guard – on their way to Cairo airport to greet Tugay – of six Egyptian police officers lost their lives in a traffic accident34. In the Suez Canal zone, more than forty Egyptian police officers died at the hands of U.K. troops. During January 1952, in what came to be known as “Black Saturday”, Cairo residents responded to the deaths of police officers by burning the cafés, cinemas, and department stores foreigners frequented around the Cairo Opera.

  • 35 “Trade Treaty Initialed by Egypt and Turkey”, Chicago Tribune, 16 August 1953.
  • 36 “Osmanlı sultanı sosyete peşinde”, Hürriyet, 29 January 2017.

35In Egypt, the status of the King declined, while that of members of the Osmanoğlu family increased. When news leaked of King Farouk’s plan to arrest dissidents in the Army, a group of “Free Officers” took a preemptive strike; carrying out a coup to force King Farouk to abdicate in favor of Narriman Sadek’s infant son. Turkey and Egypt finally signed a trade agreement which had been in negotiation since Farouk’s marriage35 In Cairo, General Mohammad Naguib brought Neslişah Sultan’s husband on to their Regency council; in Paris, Ömer Faruk’s daughter Hanzade Sultan and her husband moved suitcases out of their hotel and into “an elegant apartment36”.

  • 37 Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952-1954: The Near and Middle East, vol. IX, 1846.
  • 38 “Naguib Adamant on Egypt’s Rights”, New York Times, 24 June 1953.

36Over Cairo radio, General Mohammad Naguib reassured the Osmanoğlu women and other foreigners “their interests, their lives, their property, and their money will be safe”37, calling on Egyptians to “join the fight against the diseases of bribery, favoritism, and parasitism inherited from the old regime38.” Just like the “family council” Prince Şehzade Ömer Faruk Efendi and Sabiha Sultan at the beginning of Egypt’s monarchy, Mahmud Namık (grandson of Sultan Mehmed V Reşad) and Hashemite cousin Prince Nayef bin Abdullah, began to negotiate an engagement for Namık’s cousin, Princess Zehra Hanzade Sultan’s only daughter.

  • 39 “Iraq’s Monarch Chooses Fair, Blue-Eyed Egyptian”, Washington Post and Times Herald, 17 September 1 (...)

37They proposed Princess Sabiha Fazila hanımsultan to marry Prince Nayef’s cousin of King Faisal II of Iraq. Later, at İstanbul airport, Turkish Prime Minister Adman Menderes welcomed his Iraqi counterpart Premier Ali Jawdat. Jawdat arrived with a ring (“a large emerald surrounded by costly diamonds”) and a four-inch brooch (“with an emerald as large as a hazel nut, and many small diamonds around it”) for Iraq’s king’s fiancée39.

Family Secrets

38While the legal status of “diplomatic immunity” remained subject to local circumstances around the world, Tugay’s personal status contributed to successful conclusion of a trade agreement with Egypt that Turkey so desperately needed. In Cairo, Tugay extended his government’s invitation to join a Middle East Defense Organization, first to Egypt’s Foreign Minister, then President Neguib (Bilgin, 2007:198-199). When Egypt’s Regency ended, the “Free Officers” who ruled Egypt’s new Republic took swift measures against the royal family and their Osmanoğlu cousins, and law no. 178 (1952) passed through the legislature.

  • 40 “Former Queen in Egypt Broke”, Chicago Tribune, 11 August 1953.
  • 41 “Egypt to Sell Farouk’s Rare Coins and Art”, Chicago Tribune, 22 October 1953.
  • 42 “Egypt to Ask Turkish Envoy be Recalled”, Chicago Tribune, 22 November 1953.

39Six sections of Law no. 178 expropriated landholdings in excess of 84 HA (200 feddan), specifying tenants’ rights and landlords’ responsibilities. While Egypt’s 1923 constitution (art. 2) prevaricated, “Egyptian nationality should be determined by law,” law no. 598 (1953) empowered the Ministry of Justice “to handle claims against members of the Mohamed Aly dynasty, including ex-King Farouk.” Egypt’s Official Gazette listed women with Osmanoğlu surnames. When Narriman Sadek filed for divorce, President Naguib refused her a civil list pension40. A first group of Qobba Palace treasures (the ex-King’s stamp collection, “gold telescopes, walking sticks, seals, cigarette cases, writing table sets, coffee sets, scent flacons [and] candelabra”) went under the auctioneer’s hammer41. Tugay went on record deeming Law no. 178 “unfair42”.

  • 43 “Cabinet Decides to Expel Turkish Envoy”, FBIS-FRB-54-002, 4 January 1954.
  • 44 “Envoy of Turkey Ousted by Egypt”, New York Times, 5 January 1954.
  • 45 Gomhouraya ”, Egyptian Gazette, 6 January 1954.
  • 46 “Egypt Orders Turkish Envoy Out of Country”, Washington Post, 5 January 1954.

40Celebrated lavishly among Egypt’s royals and their Ottoman relatives, New Year’s at the Cairo Opera marked Tugay’s coup de grace. Col. Gamal Abdul Nasser “entered a room where a number of foreign diplomats were present”. When the leader of the Free Officers greeted the Turkish diplomat, Tugay snapped back, “your behavior is not that of a gentleman,” “your revolution will destroy your country43;” to another diplomat’s friendly words, Tugay replied: “you will never see me in this filthy place again44.” Journalists recalled Tugay’s attempts to bring Egypt into NATO-based security agreements45, that he complained about Egypt’s land law46.

  • 47 “Former Turkish Ambassador’s Wife Accused of Smuggling Her Wealth”, Ahram, 6 January 1954. I’m grat (...)
  • 48 “Turkey Claims Immunity for Tugay’s Wife”, FBIS-FRB-53-232, 28 November 1953.
  • 49 “Former Turkish Ambassador’s Wife”, Ahram, 6 January 1954.

41Egyptian auditors noticed Emine Hanım’s rental income of £E23,000 exceeded her £E6,000 bank balance47. Attempting to protect her, seven Turkish diplomats invoked “international law on the property of foreigners who are members of the Egyptian royal family and who attained or acquired Turkish nationality before the confiscation order48.” In the legation’s office, Tugay’s wife busied herself signing papers (compare Bardakçı, 2017: 294, n. 9). First, Emine Hanım sold 546 HA (1,300 feddans) to an unidentified buyer, for £E65,000 cash. She sold 42 HA (100 feddans) to her housekeeper (compare Bardakçı, 2017: 267). She sold 6.3 HA (15 feddans) to the former inspector of royal estates, Mr. Abdul Hamid Tewfik, for £E2,000. Finally, she exchanged title for 12.6 HA (30 feddans) to her lawyer opposite services rendered49.

  • 50 “Cabinet Decides to Expel Turkish Envoy”, FBIS-FRB-54-002, 4 January 1954.
  • 51 “Envoy of Turkey Ousted by Egypt”, Washington Post, 5 January 1954.
  • 52 “Ambassador of Turkey Expelled for Constant Attacks on the Policy of the Leaders of the Revolution” (...)

42Eventually, the Free Officers’ cabinet decided to revoke the Turkish ambassador’s diplomatic immunity, on account of “persistent animosity toward Egypt and his opposition to the government;” he had “exceeded the limits which should be observed by every diplomatic representative50.” In the midst of packing his suitcases, Tugay told a foreign correspondent over the telephone the entire event was “childish”51. A patriotic Egyptian challenged Tugay – who become an “ordinary individual” after revocation of his diplomatic immunity – to a duel52.

  • 53 “Turks Assail Expulsion”, New York Times, 7 January 1954.
  • 54 “Turkey Gets Egypt’s Reply to Tugay Note”, FBIS-FRB-54-015, 22 January 1954.
  • 55 “Turk’s Ire at Cairo Over Envoy Eases”, New York Times, 7 February 1954.
  • 56 “Naguib and Ankara Aid Discuss Turk’s Ouster”, Chicago Tribune, 15 February 1954.
  • 57 “Turkey, Pakistan Confirm Pact Aim”, New York Times, 20 February 1954.
  • 58 “New Ambassador Appointed to Ankara”, FBIS-FRB-54-071, 13 April 1954; “Fuat Tugay Issue”, FBIS-FRB- (...)

43In an automobile stripped of flags, the ex-ambassador arrived at the airport. While Turkey foreign ministry considered the event “unprecedented53,” within a month Cairo succeeded in reassuring Ankara, “what has taken place is directed against Tugay personally”, and was therefore not a necessarily diplomatic incident per se54. Claiming dissatisfaction with the expulsion55, Turkey objected to terms under which the ambassador left Egypt56, eventually reconciling with Egypt by accepting a conciliatory note from the Free Officers’57. The two countries then issued a joint communiqué expressing “to each other their sincere regrets58.”

44Officially, the issue was closed.

The Ambassador’s Revenge

  • 59 “Former Turkish Ambassador Threatens Revenge”, Ahram, 6 January 1954. Also “Noted People”, Austin A (...)

45Departing, Tugay had said, “I will have my revenge59.” In English, “ghost” means “an apparition of a dead person which is believed to appear or become manifest to the living, typically as a nebulous image.” Turkey’s ex-ambassador walked before the U.K.’s ambassador at the Cairo airport, a man with whom he had shared an equivalent status for decades.

46The first part of “the ambassador’s revenge” addresses Tugay and the U.K.’s ambassador in Egypt, Sir Ralph Clarmont Skrine Stevenson. Since the disagreement between Egypt and Turkey had been reconciled, any revenge exacted by the ex-ambassador was purely personal, against Stevenson. Historian Michael Thornhill notes U.K. prime minister Anthony Eden made a series of statements that his nation’s “interests demand[ing] the removal of Nasser from power”, After the Egyptian and Turkish ministries of foreign affairs reconciled, without any indication of concurrence from the Embassy in Cairo.

  • 60 “Kermit Roosevelt Sees Naguib”, New York Times, 25 January 1954. Also Hadley 2019, Rahnema 2014, Ga (...)

47Three weeks after Tugay departed from Cairo airport, President Naguib met Kermit Roosevelt.60 Roosevelt may have informed Ambassador Stevenson that intelligence service MI6 was cultivating a new informant (Steed, 2016: 216). London’s new source of information was variously described as a member of Nasser’s immediate entourage (Kowert, 1998: 112), or a diplomat visiting Cairo for a conference (Freiberger, 1992: 148).

  • 61 “Egypt Scores Israel”, New York Times, 3 July 1954; Harry Gilroy, “Israel Sees Peril in Suez Transf (...)
  • 62 Harry Ellis, “New Front Challenges Iraq: Façade of Unity”, Christian Science Monitor, 15 June 1954; (...)

48Sidelining the U.K. Embassy (Kyle, 1991: 106), this source channeled information from Egypt directly to Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan (McNamara, 2003: 44), Eden, and Roosevelt. Subsequently code-named LUCKY BREAK (LB), this new informant told U.K. intelligence about Israeli plans for a pre-emptive strike across the Sinai (Bower, 1995: 189). 61LB was credited with insider information about Nasser’s plans to overthrow Hashemite monarchs (Lucas, 1999: 119).62

  • 63 Drew Middleton, “Britons Urge U.S. Meet on Mid-East”, New York Times, 24 January 1954.

49Whether this informant enjoyed “family connections” among the Imperial Ottomans, is a hitherto-neglected question. Eden transmitted LB reports to President Eisenhower63, who remained “enthusiastic for covert operations” since the success of the counter-coup in Iran the previous year (Hadley, 2019: 45). While the first part of the ambassador’s revenge fed information directly to London (channeling information around the diplomat who had considered him “not very clever”), the second part of an ambassador’s revenge entailed the Osmanoğlu family’s ambitious attempt to accomplish regime change in Egypt.

50In French, one synonym for “fantôme” is “ombre,” or l'Hombre, a card game popular at the dawn of modern diplomacy. Against two opponents, the player who states: Yo soy el hombre (“I am the man”) declares a winning suit. Did Tugay help the U.K. and U.S. alliance develop a new policy, to bring down the Free Officers’ government?

  • 64 Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955-1957, volume XV, editorial note 106, 264.
  • 65 “Egyptian President ousted by Deputy”, Austin Statesman, 25 February 1954; “Troops Detain Ousted Eg (...)

51Information from LB contributed to U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles’ “New Look” policy for the former Ottoman territories, which the State Department code-named “OMEGA64;” the Secretary’s brother, Allen Dulles, had been C.I.A. director since February 1953 (Hadley, 2019: 44; Leffler 2012). After Nasser’s supporters removed Naguib65, diplomats in Cairo reported a “large number of formerly prominent and able figures… were extremely dissatisfied with Nasser, some of them might be expected to take power” (Kyle, 1991: 211-12). Such animosity appeared to intensify when Egypt paraded “Soviet bloc” weapons during September 1955 (2000: 13, Engerman 2012).

  • 66 “Port Said Throng Acclaims Nasser”, New York Times, 24 December 1957.

52Historian Scott Lucas analyzes meeting notes, finding OMEGA ranged “from sanctions calculated to isolate Nasser to use of force (both British and Israeli) to tumble Egyptian Govt…” (1996: 39, also Bardakçı, 2017: 236). OMEGA would last a “period of many months, there was to be a gradual squeeze on the Egyptian economy in order to ferment popular dissatisfaction” (Cohen, 1998: 177; Thornhill, 2000: 15). Later, Nasser claimed OMEGA was budgeted at $500,000, “to get rid of our government and install a government from the imperialist agents66.”

  • 67 “Iraqi Radio Criticizes Egyptian Press”, FBIS-FRB-56-037, 22 February 1956.

53In French, another synonym for “fantôme” is “spectre”, which is variously translated “ghost”, “phantom”, or “wraith.” It appears OMEGA quickly spread the Osmanoğlu family’s personal information and political preferences. In London, the Foreign Office’s African Department compiled ancien regime Egyptians’ names and telephone numbers (Gorst and Johnman 2013: 19). Radio Baghdad started calling Egypt’s Free Officers “a gang of gypsies”, “stateless, vagrant mercenaries67.”

  • 68 “Those Who Remained in Egypt from the Mohammad Ali and Ottoman Dynasties”, Ahram, 24 February 1958.

54In the midst of negotiating Sabiha Fazila hanımsultan’s engagement, repeating the “family council” of Prince Şehzade Ömer Faruk Efendi three decades earlier, Şehzade Mahmud Namık, Prince Nayef, and Iraq’s Crown Prince Abdul Ilah convinced Neslişah Sultan to join OMEGA68. After Iraq’s state visit to the U.K. of July 1956, members of the Hashemite family remained in London (Elliot, 1996: 121). As it happened, Iraq’s King Faisal II, Crown Prince Abdul Ilah, and Prime Minister Nuri es-Said were dining with Eden at Downing Street, the same evening Nasser announced nationalization of the Suez Canal Company.

55Again, whether what would later be called “the Suez War” stemmed from “family connections” among the Imperial Ottomans, is a hitherto-neglected question. Nuri reassured his host – so long as France, the U.K., and the U.S. remained united, and Israel was not involved – all would be well (Kyle, 1991 : 147). The ex-Ottoman’s Iraqi advice to Eden, “hit Nasser and hit him hard”, is well-documented (Alexander, 2005: 86; Jankowski, 2002: 84; Kunz, 1991: 76); later in the summer, with Hikmat Sulaiman, Nuri claimed the idea to “hit” Nasser; and Eden told a member of the House of Commons the idea was Nuri’s (Hadid, 2006: 187).

  • 69 Records of Iraq, Volume 11, Development and Martial Law, 1953-1956, 754.

56The elegant photograph of Neslişah Sultan (who had denied providing financial support to publications in Turkey nine years earlier, whose husband Prince Abdul Monheim served on Egypt’s regency council before joining OMEGA) appeared in a Turkish magazine (Bardakçı, 2017: 235). U.K. Ambassador in Baghdad Sir Michael Wright recalled 29 October, Nuri “confidently expected HMG would consult Iraq and their partners” when Israeli troops crossed the border into Egypt “allegedly to destroy the bases of some commandos” (Hadid, 2006: 189-191; Elliot, 1996: 121). On the 30th, British and French diplomats at the United Nations called on Egyptians and Israelis to separate; on the 31st, claiming “an emergency and temporary ‘fire brigade’ operation69,” British and French armed forces bombarded Egyptian air fields (Rondot, 1961 : 160).

  • 70 “Full Story of Plot to Overthrow Regime”, Egyptian Gazette, 25 December 1957.
  • 71 “Full Story of Plot to Overthrow Regime”, Egyptian Gazette, 25 December 1957.

57Of Egyptians – both civilians and combatants – 2,650 died (Varble, 2004: 89). Nonetheless, Tugay’s revenge remained obscure (Bardakçı, 2017 : 236), until the Cairo daily Shaab published documents allegedly recovered from the offices of the dissolved Wafd political party’s liquidated newspaper Misry70. Misry’s former editor Mahmud Abdul Fath appeared to be connected to Emine Hanım’s family71.

  • 72 “Plot to Overthrow Nasser Reported Smashed in Egypt”, Christian Science Monitor, 24 December 1957.

58While Tugay’s role remained obscure, the plot’s details came to be widely-known. Published in the daily newspaper, these documents suggested that U.K. intelligence officers in Beirut asked Neslişah Sultan to bring her husband (the former Regent Prince Abdul Monheim) into plans against Egypt’s military leaders72 (compare Bardakçı, 2017: 247). An officer in Egypt’s military intelligence Essam ed-Din Mahmud Khalil claimed in a newspaper interview that it was the pretense he’d been cashiered which enabled him infiltrate the Osmanoğlu family network.

  • 73 “Secrets of the Conspiracy”, Ahram, 24 February 1958.

59In Beirut, Mohammed Hussein Khairy, a grandson of Sultan Hussein Kamel, introduced an evidently-disaffected Khalil to a British intelligence officer, “Mr. John Farmer.” “Farmer” urged Khalil to lure other unhappy officers from Egypt’s Army to his cause, promising former regent Prince Abdul Monheim (Neslişah Sultan’s husband) as a civilian head of state, with ex-interior minister and ex-governor of Alexandria, Ahmed Mortada al-Maraghi, supporting this new government as prime minister (Kyle, 1991 :148-149). Khalil reported that funds for the plot came from Ahmed Murtada Maraghi; from Mohammed Hussein Khairy, married to Neslişah Sultan’s cousin (Cull, 1996: 359); and from Crown Prince AbdulIlah of Iraq73.

  • 74 “Full Story of Plot to Overthrow Regime”, Egyptian Gazette, 25 December 1957.
  • 75 “Egypt Investigates ‘Anti-Nasser Plot”, New York Times, 28 December 1957.
  • 76 “Nasser Says Egypt Gains in Cold War”, Washington Post, 24 December 1957.

60Khalil claimed he’d collected a total of £E 162,500 from these three sources74. When plans for a coup stalled, the conspirators suggested falling back on OMEGA plans to assassinate Nasser and government ministers. On the basis of Khalil’s evidence, the ex-Regent and his wife were taken into custody75, the conspirators’ funds were turned over to local charities, and Nasser gave Khalil a medal76.

  • 77 “Port Said Throng Acclaims Nasser”, New York Times, 24 December 1957.

61Having planned a public address in Port Said’s city center, Nasser used the speech to reveal the plot’s salacious details. During that tense gathering, plain-clothes police circulated among the crowd, diplomats representing communist countries hung on every word, and soldiers on rooftops held automatic weapons at alert. 77..

  • 78 “Full story of plot to overthrow regime”, Egyptian Gazette, 25 December 1957.
  • 79 “Adel Sabit ”, Telegraph, 26 March 2001.
  • 80 “Monarchist Conspirators Get Life Prison Sentences”, Egyptian Gazette, 29 April 1958.

62Presiding over an eventual trial of Osmanoğlu family members was Major General Mohammed Nabih Amin. After months of deliberations, the court stripped publisher of Misry Mahmud Abdul Fath of his Egyptian nationality78, sentenced Adel Mahmud Sabit to six months’ imprisonment79, sentenced Mahmud Namık and two other men to 15 years with hard labor, and handed lifetime sentences down to Ahmed Murtada Maraghy (ex-governor of Alexandria) and Mohammed Hussein Khairy80.

  • 81 France. Ambassade (U.S.). Service de presse et d'information, Speeches and Press Conferences, vols. (...)

63The ex-ambassador’s humiliation at the hands of Cairo airport border guards, then the unwinding of the “ambassador’s revenge” lay bare a transnational network. It seems Egypt’s authorities offered Mohammed Hussein Khairy a dangerous mission, as the price for his release from prison; French military intelligence in Algeria later arrested him with Egyptian weapons (compare Bardakçı, 2017: 248)81.

64The plot against Nasser Khalil revealed the persistent influence of Ottoman imperial family, through Ömer Faruk, through the Egyptian royals, and through those of Iraq, with their longstanding alliances with the U.K. (and a new alliance with the U.S.). Heirs succeeded in selling the Mermer konak to the Turkish government, suggesting a “very clever” Tugay negotiated a property transfer on behalf of his wife’s family as part of his responsibilities to the Republic of Turkey’s III department.

65In Baghdad, in the midst of Rihab Palace preparations for the marriage of Namık’s cousin Princess Sabiha Fazila hanımsultan, Iraq’s Army killed members of the Hashemite royal family on 14 Tammuz 1958. Citizens of the newly-declared Republic of Iraq killed Nuri es-Said in the street three days later. Later that year, King Farouk’s Egyptian citizenship was revoked.

Conclusion

66Recognizing the multiple significations of Château de Champs-sur-Marne (once a private home; once, also, a guest house for visiting heads of state from nations whose boundaries were never sufficient to contain their own histories); acknowledging, too, that the boundaries of Egypt are never sufficient to contain Egypt’s history (Provence, 2011, 2017), this article questions documents from three historical periods in order to trace the persistence of institutions and laws from World War II, through the war, and into the Cold War (Gienow-Hecht, 2012).

67A struggle between transnational and national elements continued to unwind across subsequent decades. In Egypt, jailors at Tora Prison released Mahmud Namık’s body with an official statement the 49-year old had “succumbed to a heart attack” in custody. In the territories of the former Empire’s allies, Oxford University published Emine Hanım’s memoirs, as Neslişah Sultan’s diamond parure fell under an auctioneer’s hammer in London. Ex-King Farouk died during 1965, in Rome.

68The man who had been Turkey’s ambassador in Egypt was a “phantom of Empire” Fuad Tugay died in İstanbul (1967), followed by his wife Emine Hanım (1973). Egypt’s president Anwar es-Sadat pardoned Ahmed Murtada Maraghi five years later. Hanzade Sultan died in Paris (1998), her sister Necla Sultan in Madrid (2006), and their sister Neslişah Sultan in İstanbul as well (2012).

  • 82 Facebook’s “Fuad II, Official Site” was created 20 July 2011. Ahl Cairo magazine’s cover (2 October (...)

69The name of Narriman Sadek’s son Fuad II floated, briefly, as candidate for president of Egypt82. While the Tokmak burnu yalı appears abandoned, Turkey’s Supreme Council of Real Estate granted the Mermer konak a coveted “Grade 1” status with a renovation budget, standing as testimony to Tugay’s skillful negotiation on behalf of his wife’s family (compare Bardakçı, 2017: 295, 15). At present, Google Maps marks a decaying “Palace of Princess Neamat”, with residential towers encroaching on its gardens, in Marg.

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Notes

1 Republic of Egypt, 1954, Ministry of War, Meteorological Department, Weather Report on the for January, 1.

2 “Turkey Plans Action”, Iraq Times, 7 January 1954.

3 U.K. National Archives, F.O. 371/111069-0005. I’m grateful to Gökser Gökçay for drawing this to my attention.

4 “Former Turkish Ambassador Threatens Revenge for His Expulsion”, Ahram, 6 January 1954. I’m grateful to Yehia Hafez for drawing this to my attention. Also “Noted People”, Austin American Statesman, 12 January 1954.

5 İskender Kardaslar, « Sehit Babasi Bir Kahraman Musir Deli Fuad Pasa », canakkalegundem.net, 21 April 2018.

6 U.K. National Archives, F.O. 424/297/14-15.

7 “Turks Establish Embassy”, FBIS-FRB-43-255, 25 October 1943.

8 According to Manx National Heritage (Acc No. MS 10859), Stevenson and Tugay both served in Spain (Stevenson was British Minister to Spain during 1938), Yugoslavia (Stevenson “worked with the exiled King Peter and communist leader Marshal Tito to reconcile relationships and come to an agreement over the troubled port of Trieste”), and China (Stevenson became British Ambassador during 1946) before Egypt (where Stevenson was British Ambassador until 1955).

9 “Hulusi Tugay”, FBIS-FRB-47-283, 31 January 1947.

10 “Egypt’s Princes and Princesses Figure in Disgraceful Adventures”, Washington Post, 11 January 1920.

11 “Ottomans in Egypt”, Ahram, 24 December 1957. I’m grateful to Yehia Hafez for drawing this to my attention.

12 Turkey. Merkezı̂ Hükûmet Teşkilâtı Araştırma Projesi. Yönetim Kurulu, 1966, 62.

13 U.S. National Archives, Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1802-1949; Central File: Decimal File 867,021, Internal Affairs of States, Executive Departments of Government., Turkey, Foreign Office., Jan. 15, 1930–May 11, 1938, Ministère des Affaires Etrangers, Janvier 1937, 2.

14 “Fuat Hulusi Tugay ”, FBIS-FRB-47-093, 3 July 1947.

15 “Yargıtay tarihinde bir ilk!” Sabah, 26 July 2011.

16 Richard Young, “The Development of International Law”, ABA Journal, September 1953, 840.

17 Elihu Lauterpacht, International Law Reports, 1955, 287.

18 U.K. National Archives, F.O. 371/31566.

19 U.S. National Archives, Central File: Decimal File 867.00, Internal Affairs of States, Turkey, Political Affairs, 21 August 1947-27 September 1947.

20 Ibid.

21 U.S. National Archives, Central File: Decimal File 867.9111; Internal Affairs of States, Public Press, Newspapers. 6 January 1945-13 December 1949.

22 I’m grateful to Nabil al-Tikriti for drawing this point to my attention.

23 U.K. National Archives. F.O. 371/87942. I’m grateful to Gökser Gökçay for bringing this to my attention.

24 “Trade Mission to Egypt”, 17 December 1952, FBIS-FRB-52-247; “Egyptian-Turkish Trade”, FBIS-FRB-53-006, 10 January 1953.

25 “Turkish Help Seen as Cairo Talks End”, New York Times, 8 November 1943.

26 “Farouk May Wed Young Cairo Girl”, New York Times, 28 December 1949.

27 “Romance Story is ‘Premature’ Egypt Declares”, Chicago Daily Tribune, 30 December 1949.

28 “Sister Tries to Break Romance of Egypt’s King”, Chicago Tribune, 29 December 1949.

29 “Egypt King Sets Birthday to Wed Girl”, Los Angeles Times, 29 December 1949.

30 “Report Farouk ‘Takes’ Girl”, Chicago Tribune, 28 December 1969.

31 “Maraghy acquitted by Alex. Assizes”, Egyptian Gazette, 15 January 1954.

32 “Egypt Fetes Royal Wedding”, British Pathé, 1951.

33 “Wedding of King Farouk and Narriman Sadek at Cairo”, Getty Images, 1951.

34 “Six Egyptian Cops in Auto Die in Crash with Trolley”, Chicago Tribune, 29 December 1952.

35 “Trade Treaty Initialed by Egypt and Turkey”, Chicago Tribune, 16 August 1953.

36 “Osmanlı sultanı sosyete peşinde”, Hürriyet, 29 January 2017.

37 Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952-1954: The Near and Middle East, vol. IX, 1846.

38 “Naguib Adamant on Egypt’s Rights”, New York Times, 24 June 1953.

39 “Iraq’s Monarch Chooses Fair, Blue-Eyed Egyptian”, Washington Post and Times Herald, 17 September 1957.

40 “Former Queen in Egypt Broke”, Chicago Tribune, 11 August 1953.

41 “Egypt to Sell Farouk’s Rare Coins and Art”, Chicago Tribune, 22 October 1953.

42 “Egypt to Ask Turkish Envoy be Recalled”, Chicago Tribune, 22 November 1953.

43 “Cabinet Decides to Expel Turkish Envoy”, FBIS-FRB-54-002, 4 January 1954.

44 “Envoy of Turkey Ousted by Egypt”, New York Times, 5 January 1954.

45 Gomhouraya ”, Egyptian Gazette, 6 January 1954.

46 “Egypt Orders Turkish Envoy Out of Country”, Washington Post, 5 January 1954.

47 “Former Turkish Ambassador’s Wife Accused of Smuggling Her Wealth”, Ahram, 6 January 1954. I’m grateful to Yehia Hafez for drawing this to my attention.

48 “Turkey Claims Immunity for Tugay’s Wife”, FBIS-FRB-53-232, 28 November 1953.

49 “Former Turkish Ambassador’s Wife”, Ahram, 6 January 1954.

50 “Cabinet Decides to Expel Turkish Envoy”, FBIS-FRB-54-002, 4 January 1954.

51 “Envoy of Turkey Ousted by Egypt”, Washington Post, 5 January 1954.

52 “Ambassador of Turkey Expelled for Constant Attacks on the Policy of the Leaders of the Revolution”, Ahram, 5 January 1954.

53 “Turks Assail Expulsion”, New York Times, 7 January 1954.

54 “Turkey Gets Egypt’s Reply to Tugay Note”, FBIS-FRB-54-015, 22 January 1954.

55 “Turk’s Ire at Cairo Over Envoy Eases”, New York Times, 7 February 1954.

56 “Naguib and Ankara Aid Discuss Turk’s Ouster”, Chicago Tribune, 15 February 1954.

57 “Turkey, Pakistan Confirm Pact Aim”, New York Times, 20 February 1954.

58 “New Ambassador Appointed to Ankara”, FBIS-FRB-54-071, 13 April 1954; “Fuat Tugay Issue”, FBIS-FRB-54-052, 14 March 1954; “Ankara and Cairo Settle”, New York Times, 30 March 1954.

59 “Former Turkish Ambassador Threatens Revenge”, Ahram, 6 January 1954. Also “Noted People”, Austin American Statesman, 12 January 1954.

60 “Kermit Roosevelt Sees Naguib”, New York Times, 25 January 1954. Also Hadley 2019, Rahnema 2014, Gasiorowski and Byrne 2004.

61 “Egypt Scores Israel”, New York Times, 3 July 1954; Harry Gilroy, “Israel Sees Peril in Suez Transfer”, New York Times, 25 July 1954; “Israel Protests Some U.N. Patrols”, New York Times, 24 September 1954.

62 Harry Ellis, “New Front Challenges Iraq: Façade of Unity”, Christian Science Monitor, 15 June 1954; Robert Doty, “High Cairo Aide Placed on Leave”, New York Times, 10 September 1954;

63 Drew Middleton, “Britons Urge U.S. Meet on Mid-East”, New York Times, 24 January 1954.

64 Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955-1957, volume XV, editorial note 106, 264.

65 “Egyptian President ousted by Deputy”, Austin Statesman, 25 February 1954; “Troops Detain Ousted Egyptian Chief at Home; Charge He Sabotaged Military Regime”, Chicago Tribune, 26 February 1954; “New Regime Denies Intent to Execute Naguib”, Los Angeles Times, 26 February 1954.

66 “Port Said Throng Acclaims Nasser”, New York Times, 24 December 1957.

67 “Iraqi Radio Criticizes Egyptian Press”, FBIS-FRB-56-037, 22 February 1956.

68 “Those Who Remained in Egypt from the Mohammad Ali and Ottoman Dynasties”, Ahram, 24 February 1958.

69 Records of Iraq, Volume 11, Development and Martial Law, 1953-1956, 754.

70 “Full Story of Plot to Overthrow Regime”, Egyptian Gazette, 25 December 1957.

71 “Full Story of Plot to Overthrow Regime”, Egyptian Gazette, 25 December 1957.

72 “Plot to Overthrow Nasser Reported Smashed in Egypt”, Christian Science Monitor, 24 December 1957.

73 “Secrets of the Conspiracy”, Ahram, 24 February 1958.

74 “Full Story of Plot to Overthrow Regime”, Egyptian Gazette, 25 December 1957.

75 “Egypt Investigates ‘Anti-Nasser Plot”, New York Times, 28 December 1957.

76 “Nasser Says Egypt Gains in Cold War”, Washington Post, 24 December 1957.

77 “Port Said Throng Acclaims Nasser”, New York Times, 24 December 1957.

78 “Full story of plot to overthrow regime”, Egyptian Gazette, 25 December 1957.

79 “Adel Sabit ”, Telegraph, 26 March 2001.

80 “Monarchist Conspirators Get Life Prison Sentences”, Egyptian Gazette, 29 April 1958.

81 France. Ambassade (U.S.). Service de presse et d'information, Speeches and Press Conferences, vols. 76-147, 1959.

82 Facebook’s “Fuad II, Official Site” was created 20 July 2011. Ahl Cairo magazine’s cover (2 October 2011) is a cartoon of Fuad II in tarbush and a military uniform, querying why he does not run for President (Ahl Cairo magazine’s presence on social media was established 19 March 2011, currently has 29 followers). Note also “Zifaf hafid al-malik ‘Farouk’ ealaa hafidat malak 'afghanistan ”, in al-Masry al-Youm, 31 August 2013 (by contrast, the presence on social media for al-Masry al-Youm’s English edition, was established 25 August 2009, currently has 27K followers).

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Elizabeth Bishop, « Ghosts of Empire in Egypt », Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée, 148 | 2020, 111-130.

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Elizabeth Bishop, « Ghosts of Empire in Egypt », Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée [En ligne], 148 | décembre 2020, mis en ligne le 02 juin 2021, consulté le 14 juin 2021. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/remmm/15260 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/remmm.15260

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Elizabeth Bishop

Department of History, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos TX 78666 Etats Unis

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