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Partie 1 : La ville racontée aux enfants

The city as metaphor: constructing space meaning

La ville comme métaphore : construire le sens de l’espace
Ana Margarida Ramos

Résumés

Le but de ce texte est d’analyser un album – A Cidade [La ville], d’Inês Fonseca Santos et Beatriz Bagulho – qui parle d’une ville symbolique puisqu’il se réfère à un seul bâtiment : un centre culturel au cœur de Lisbonne. Destiné à promouvoir le Centre culturel de Belém (CCB) et ses activités culturelles auprès des jeunes lecteurs, cet album présente le bâtiment et ses « habitants » comme une ville particulière, « une ville dans la ville », y compris ses histoires (et anecdotes) et ses protagonistes particuliers. La métaphore utilisée tout au long de l’album renforce l’idée de cohésion et d’identité de l’espace, une sorte d’écosystème unique où l’art et les gens peuvent être ensemble. Mêlant faits et fiction, cet album se distingue également par la manière dont il promeut l’idée d’un milieu urbain comme un espace adapté aux enfants, une idée peu commune dans la littérature portugaise pour enfants.

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1The close relationship between children’s literature (and even childhood) and natural and rural environments and contexts has deep historical and cultural roots, based on the romantic theories that associate nature to innocence, spontaneity and freedom, core values of many classic books of children’s literature. The opposition with the more problematic and chaotic urban space, constructed in the context of the industrial revolution and of its social consequences on the image of the childhood, still echoes in contemporary texts, and its legacy goes far beyond the original context of these ideas and values.

2Several studies, including in the field of geographic sciences, underline the impact and repercussions of this symbolic opposition, not only in children’s literature texts, still depicting idyllic rural scenarios, but on the lives of children and their families, since they tend to consider the urban context as an unsuitable space for children to live and play in.

  • 1 Owain Jones, Naturally Not! Childhood, the Urban and Romanticism, Human Ecology Review, vol. 2, n (...)
  • 2 Owain Jones, Little figures, big figures: Country childhood stories, in: Paul Cloke, Jo Little (e (...)

3Owain Jones,1 for instance, analyses the repercussions of the symbolic connotations of urban and rural spaces in children’s living conditions, taking the example of the United Kingdom. This author already stated that “urban childhoods are often prejudged against underlying notions of country childhood idyll, and the contemporary lives of rural children themselves are lived within the shadows of the figures of children that play throughout the sunlit landscapes of popular and literary imagination”.2

  • 3 O. Jones, Naturally Not!”, op. cit., p. 27.
  • 4 Anne Higonnet, Pictures of Innocence: the history and crisis of ideal childhood, London, Thames and (...)
  • 5 Naomi Hamer, “The City as a Liminal Site in Children's Literature: Enchanted Realism with an Urban (...)

4By stressing how the common discourse is still dominated by the ideas of nature and innocence associated with rural areas and a pleasant and healthy childhood as a reminiscence of the romantic legacy, the study also shows the consequences for the children living in cities of an opposite set of values, connected with the idea of fear, exclusion, surveillance and even crime, leading to a transformation in social and cultural practices, including playing. The author concludes that “children are extremely adept at finding and exploiting environmental opportunities for play”3 in every context, including urban areas, but these opportunities are often closed or restricted by adults’ fears and crystallised perceptions and it is necessary to change the traditional and unsustainable4 romantic idea of childhood and its close relationship with the rural scenario, in order to ensure that children can also relate to the urban environment and all the possibilities it creates, including these related to the use of urban green spaces. Naomi Hamer5 underlines the metaphorical implications of the depiction of cities in children’s literature, stressing positive and negative connotations according to the main purpose of the texts.

  • 6 Jenny Bavidge, Stories in Space: The Geographies of Children's Literature, Children's Geographies(...)
  • 7 Colin Ward, The Child in the City, London, Architectural Press, 1990; Hugh Matthews, Melanie Limb, (...)
  • 8 J. Bavidge, Stories in Space, op. cit., p. 328.
  • 9 Eric L. Tribuella, “Children's Literature and the Child Flâneur”, Children's Literature, nº 38, 201 (...)

5Jenny Bavidge6 describes five modes in which the city is written for children, analysing how urban narratives help to construct the imagined city space, perceived, in the majority of cases, as incompatible with childhood and unsuitable for children7. The five characteristics of urban narratives defined by the author (nostalgic, transformative, generic, realist and irrational) illustrate a certain level of variety in approaches towards the relationship between children and the city, but also “the tensions and possibilities”8 of that relationship, encouraging a deep reflexion on the subject, since it also tends to evolve and change according with different contexts and cultures. The concept of flânerie9 also provided some relevant reflections on the child’s relationship with the city, identifying different activities carried out in that space, from contemplation to exploration, experiencing the city in multiple ways. More recently, in order to raise awareness regarding climate emergency, city space is often depicted as an example of an unhealthy and unsustainable relationship between people and nature. Nevertheless, urban spaces are increasingly dominant in contemporary children’s literature, in line with readers’ experiences, and it is important to study their representation, their functionalities and their symbolism.

The depiction of urban space in Portuguese children’s literature

  • 10 Ângela Balça, Fernando Azevedo, A cidade e as crianças na literatura infantil. Um estudo explo­rat (...)
  • 11 Flávia Brocchetto Ramos, Lovani Volmer, O espaço urbano em narrativas do PNBE 2010, Trama, vol. 2 (...)

6Studies dedicated to the depiction of urban spaces in Portuguese children’s literature are rare, with scholars paying more attention to foreign literary production than the national one.10 Even in Brazil, for instance, the subject does not seem to attract researchers’ attention, with some minor exceptions.11 This lack of attention from researchers may be explained by the particular Portuguese historical and geographic context, still facing the consequences of its late industrialisation and the slow growth of its cities until recent years.

  • 12 Ana Margarida Ramos, Rui Ramos, “Urban and rural landscapes in Portuguese picture story books: reif (...)

7In Portuguese children’s literature, the nostalgia of the countryside is a dominant theme, frequently related to the opposition between urban and rural landscapes. Cities are often described as crowded and noisy, and characterised as polluted, overpopulated and disorganised. In contrast, the countryside is associated with peace, tranquillity and innocence. Despite the relevance of urban life in contemporary childhood, the depiction of rural areas is still dominant, related to family roots and traditions, even if more symbolic than real.12

  • 13 Isabel Minhós Martins, Bernardo Carvalho, As Duas Estradas, Oeiras, Planeta Tangerina, 2009.
  • 14 Carla Maia de Almeida, Alex Gozblau, Ainda Falta Muito?, Lisbon, Caminho, 2009.

8In some examples, the opposition between urban and rural contexts can even be the central theme of some contemporary picturebooks, such as As duas estradas13 [The two roads] by Isabel Minhós Martins and Bernardo Carvalho or Ainda falta muito?14 [Are we there yet?] by Carla Maia de Almeida and Alex Gozblau. These both depict family road trips from the city to the countryside and enumerate in detail all the advantages of the latter, expressing a common Portuguese nostalgia among city inhabitants towards rural environments.

  • 15 Bernardo Carvalho, Trocoscópio, Carcavelos, Planeta Tangerina, 2010.
  • 16 Word play with kaleidoscope (changing and/or mixing shapes).

9In the case of the wordless picturebook Trocoscópio15 [Changeoscope16] by Bernardo Carvalho, the dichotomy between urban and natural contexts is even clearer, since the volume presents images constructed only by geometric shapes of different colours. The gradual subtraction of the geometrical elements from the even page and its reorganization on the odd page corresponds to a process of transformation of the initial landscape, marked by urbanity and pollution, giving way to a natural space, characterized by the presence of various plants and animals.

  • 17 Isabel Minhós Martins, Bernardo Carvalho, O mundo num segundo, Oeiras, Planeta Tangerina, 2008.

10The picturebook O mundo num segundo17 [The world in a second] by Isabel Minhós Martins and Bernardo Carvalho, depicts a variety of places around the world, including big cities such as Buenos Aires, Tokyo or New York, as well as very small, almost unknown places. The main characteristics of the metropolis are mainly related to traffic (Buenos Aires, Guadalajara) and transportation (Chicago), crowds (New York, Tokyo) and noise (Omsk) and natural environments are often depicted as isolated, empty and calm (Lae, Mértola, Toubkal) and sometimes playful (Xangongo, Karabuk).

  • 18 J. Bavidge, Stories in Space, op. cit., p. 320.
  • 19 O. Jones, Naturally Not!”, op. cit., p. 28.
  • 20 Kerry Mallan, Strolling through the (post)modern city: Modes of being a flaneur in picture books”,(...)

11This perception can be in some way related to the pastoral mode18 and an idyllic and “romantic” construction of the childhood. But cities can also be depicted more positively, understood as dynamic and almost alive spaces. The personification of urban space, the relevance of green areas and the presence of endless opportunities to play can contribute to create a “trust between the idea of childhood and idea of the city”.19 For instance, Mallan20 also stresses that, besides the depiction of violent and traumatic children’s experiences in the city, there are also some examples of picturebooks that incorporate flânerie as a possible means of establishing a relationship with the urban space, based on observation and personal experience of cultural elements, similar to a touristic approach, underlying a more positive view and perception of the urban context.

  • 21 Isabel Minhós Martins, Madalena Matoso, Andar por aí, Oeiras, Planeta Tangerina, 2009.
  • 22 Rosemary Ross Johnston, A Chronotope of Childhood in Narrative, in: Roger D. Sell (ed.), Children (...)

12A good example of a picturebook that depicts a healthy relationship between a child and the urban space is Andar por Aí21 [Out there somewhere] by Isabel Minhós Martins and Madalena Matoso. This picturebook exemplifies the chronotope of the “adventure time of everyday life”22 very effectively, by associating childhood with freedom and the enjoyment of using the outdoor spaces as a sort of playground.

  • 23 Alice Vieira, Lote 12, 2.º frente, Lisbon, Editorial Caminho, 1980.
  • 24 Isabel Minhós Martins, Bernardo Carvalho, A grande invasão, Oeiras, Planeta Tangerina, 2007.

13But the city can also be portrayed as a chaotic space, dominated by pollution and traffic, where it is difficult to live and to play. Alice Vieira, in the beginning of the ‘80s, expressed in a great detail the personal challenges of moving to a new apartment in the city suburbs in Lote 12, 2.º frente23 [Number 12, 2nd front], especially in terms of its lack of identity. The new house, similar to all the next ones in the same plain neighbourhood, seems to not have a proper “personality”, like the previous one, and the protagonist discovers that only time will help to add memories and feeling to the new home. Isabel Minhós Martins and Bernardo Carvalho, in A Grande Invasão24 [The great invasion], a picturebook about the current domination of cars, presented as invaders who are taking control of humans and of the planet, also underline the transformation of the city space, polluted and unfriendly to pedestrians, where green space tends to disappear every day.

  • 25 Inês Fonseca Santos, Beatriz Bagulho, A Cidade, Lisbon, Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 2018.

14In the context of this study, the purpose of this paper is to analyse a picturebook – A Cidade25 [The City], by Inês Fonseca Santos and Beatriz Bagulho – that deals with a symbolic city since it refers to a single building: a cultural centre in the heart of Lisbon. Aimed at promoting the Centro Cultural de Belém (CCB) [Cultural Centre of Belém] and its cultural activities among young readers, this picturebook depicts the building and its “inhabitants” as a special city, “a city inside a city”, including its history (and anecdotes) and special protagonists. The metaphor used throughout the picturebook reinforces the idea of cohesion and identity of space, a sort of a unique ecosystem where art and people can be together. Combining facts and fiction, this picturebook also distinguishes itself by the way it promotes the idea of an urban setting as a child-friendly space, an uncommon idea in Portuguese children’s literature, perhaps inaugurating a new trend regarding the depiction of urban space.

The city as a metaphor: analysis of the picturebook A Cidade [The City]

  • 26 The Centro Cultural de Belém, often abbreviated as CCB, is a prominent culture and arts complex loc (...)
  • 27 This small dimension is an important aspect of the Cultural Centre’s valorisation, since it becomes (...)

15Published in 2018, in order to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Cultural Centre of Belém,26 the picturebook A Cidade [The City] (ill. 1) by Inês Fonseca Santos and Beatriz Bagulho combines the informative and the literary function, presenting itself as a sort of hybrid publication, between non-fiction and fiction. Therefore, the picturebook includes all sorts of verifiable information related to the genesis of this emblematic space in Lisbon, as well as its spatial organisation and its management structure, identifying some relevant milestones and protagonists of its history. Nevertheless, the narrator’s discourse incorporates elements of the literary discourse, a sort of a tale (or several) presenting the information in an appealing way, captivating the reader’s attention and curiosity. This includes the use of several metaphors to explain this particular centre, including the one in the title – The city – since we are not exactly talking about a city, but a complex building, a “city” inside a city. Sometimes, this cultural centre is even personified and presented as a sort of a living being, in a complementary metaphor. Therefore, not only is the centre associated with a small city,27 but the building is also personified, an idea underlined by the choice of words and expressions such as “was born”, “was in Lisbon’s belly/womb for five years”, “you are so grown-up”; “being adult means having memories”.

16The relevance of this metaphorical dimension is central to the picturebook, since this is the starting point for all the information gathered and to convey the message that this building is, indeed, a very special place, different and unique, a sort of microcosmos or even a parallel reality in the geography of Lisbon.

Illustration 1: Cover of the picturebook A Cidade [The City].

17Described as a city, the CCB is organised in different areas and includes several cultural indoor and outdoor places (concert rooms, dressing rooms, rehearsal rooms, exhibition spaces, galleries, gardens). The relevance of its global architecture is also present throughout the picturebook, showing the complexity of the all the elements that integrate the cultural centre, from different visual perspectives and points of view. The cover and back cover (ill. 2) form a double spread that includes a kind of floor plan of the building, but where people are also included. The endpapers (ill. 3) imitate the cladding of building, in pink orange limestone, an iconic and unique colour that functions as an identity symbol of the centre, also present in the title and credits page. Structural blocks with courtyards and squares form the building and there are also streets inside the architectural structure that link the different areas depicted throughout the volume.

Illustration 2: Cover and back of A Cidade.

Illustration 3: A Cidade, endpapers.

18The majority of illustrations of the cultural centre, even if they include realistic and recognisable details of the building and of several rooms, such as the Great Concert Hall or the Factory of Arts, are characterised by their playful dimension in terms of scale and perspective. They also stress the relevance of the use of the infrastructures and include people, not only performing and working, but also enjoying the shows and the space. This human dimension is crucial to the idea of a city, perceived as a lived and living space. In a way, the innovative architectural project of the centre is only one part of its success, and the centre is only completed when the people use it (ill. 4) and enjoy it.

Illustration 4: Example of a double spread in the picturebook A Cidade.

19The cultural dimension of the centre, which connects with the formative and educational ones, establishes not only its purpose but also its main advantage, bringing very different arts, performers, and aesthetical trends together. The great variety of cultural productions, shows, concerts and performances, with close attention to child audiences, also has a great impact in terms of its public, depicted visually in the illustrations, with a huge diversity in terms of gender, age, ethnicity or even mobility. In terms of the message of the picturebook (and even the cultural centre), this diversity expresses the idea of a “popular” and “accessible” space instead of an elitist one, aimed at more privileged people, culturally and economically, a concept that is still associated with some cultural shows and spaces in Portugal.

20In this particular case, the work done by Fábrica das Artes [Arts Factory] needs to be underlined since this is an ongoing educative project that is organised throughout the year, especially aimed at children and families, designed not only to respond to their needs in terms of entertainment, but also to promote cultural education and awareness of the relevance of art and culture.

21In addition, children use the CCB spaces in various and creative ways, including playful ones. For instance, they climb the statue in the garden and move the stones in the lake. This personal appropriation of the space has visible implications on its visual appearance, due to the systematic use, and includes some concessions from the artists and art curators, like the absence of flowers in the statue or some missing stones in the submersed wave drawn in the lake. Nevertheless, it also implies that the CCB is a lived space, as well as a child-friendly space, attracting children and families. The use of coloured crayon technique in the illustrations helps create more colourful and vibrant images, especially relevant in the outdoor scenes and parts of the centre. It also encourages a sort of proximity with the child reader, since he/she is familiar with the technique, commonly used by children.

Final considerations

22The picturebook under analysis illustrates an uncommon trend in the Portuguese children’s literature panorama by depicting the city and its cultural opportunities in a very positive way, underlining the advantages of the existence of a specific cultural building. Due to its size and proportions, the Cultural Centre of Belém is presented as a city inside the city of Lisbon, where there are many different spaces to explore. Therefore, this particular metaphorical new city, built in the heart of the old one, is depicted as a sort of oasis, an idyllic microcosmos of perfection, where culture and nature get together, where the aesthetical experience promoted by the shows and concerts, either in closed rooms or in open-air performances, is combined with the playfulness of the architecture of the building and the environment. In a certain way, the depiction of this refuge or sanctuary as a city has more in common with the traditional representation of rural and natural landscapes characterised by the freedom of open-air activities. The references to the two gardens and the lake that exist in the cultural centre underlines this suggestion of proximity with nature and reinforces its benefits in terms of child development.

  • 28 Ana Margarida Ramos, Can a city map be a picturebook? Alternative publishing formats for children(...)
  • 29 Susa Monteiro, Beja. A minha cidade, Lisbon, Pato Lógico, 2016.
  • 30 Ana Seixas, Viseu. A minha cidade, Lisbon, Pato Lógico, 2017.
  • 31 Catarina Sobral, Coimbra. A minha cidade, Lisbon, Pato Lógico, 2019.

23Due to the specific purposes of this picturebook, created created in celebration of 25 years of existence of the CCB, but also to promote the cultural centre and to raise awareness among children and their families of the main activities organised throughout the years, it cannot be compared to other similar volumes in Portuguese children’s literature. Nevertheless, there are some examples of a growing interest in more urban (or suburban) narratives from a new and younger generation of authors, even if their depictions tend to be dominated by an idealised and optimistic perspective and often give specific attention to natural spaces. In the series of picturebooks-maps dedicated to cities (My City), published by Pato Lógico and already analysed in another study28, there are three volumes dedicated to Portuguese small/middle size cities, Beja,29 Viseu30 and Coimbra,31 which depict personal and pleasant memories of their authors, respectively Susa Monteiro, Ana Seixas, and Catarina Sobral. In the three volumes, attention is divided between some specific streets and neighbourhoods, as well as parks and gardens, followed by cultural spaces such as museums, cultural centres, art galleries, theatres and cinemas.

24In a certain way, this positive and somehow idyllic vision of the city space can also be related to a certain nostalgia for the natural and rural environment, still present in the Portuguese contemporary society, especially among urban citizens. Even nowadays, the idea of the rural origins of most city inhabitants, either true or symbolically constructed, is still a reality. This can be related either to the small size of the country and of its cities, including the capital, far from the idea of a true metropolis, or to the social transformation of Portuguese society, still suffering from the consequences of the abandonment of the interior and of the small villages, which created a sort of nostalgic desire for a simple and quieter life, also related to childhood memories, in rural places.

  • 32 Christophe Meunier, Children’s Picturebooks as cultural and geographic products: actors of spatial (...)

25In conclusion, by setting most books in a rural and natural scenario or in an urban scenario affected by natural and rural elements, Portuguese contemporary children’s literature still maintains a strong connection to an idyllic and mythical image of rurality, constructed in strong opposition to urban contexts, except when they include some relevant natural elements. The access to cultural spaces seems to be the most positive quality of an urban scenario, giving the concrete possibility of enlarging the cultural experiences of individuals, including families and children. Therefore, the valorisation of a cultural space as special as the one presented in the picturebook A Cidade seems to celebrate the fusion of the city’s most relevant features and natural possibilities, creating a unique living experience, and responding simultaneously to the ideas of transfer and transaction,32 according to Meunier’s proposal regarding the depiction and understanding of space, since the picturebook under analysis not only transmits the perceptions of a specific space, but also aims to transform the readers’ perceptions of that same space by adding new possibilities and meanings.

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Notes

1 Owain Jones, Naturally Not! Childhood, the Urban and Romanticism, Human Ecology Review, vol. 2, nº 9, , 2002, p. 17–30.

2 Owain Jones, Little figures, big figures: Country childhood stories, in: Paul Cloke, Jo Little (ed.), Contested Countryside Cultures: Otherness, Marginalisation and Rurality, London, Routledge, 1997, p. 159.

3 O. Jones, Naturally Not!”, op. cit., p. 27.

4 Anne Higonnet, Pictures of Innocence: the history and crisis of ideal childhood, London, Thames and Hudson, 1998.

5 Naomi Hamer, “The City as a Liminal Site in Children's Literature: Enchanted Realism with an Urban Twist, The Looking Glass: New Perspectives on Children’s Literature, vol. 7, nº 1, 2003, n/p.

6 Jenny Bavidge, Stories in Space: The Geographies of Children's Literature, Children's Geographies, vol. 3, nº 4, 2006, p. 319–330.

7 Colin Ward, The Child in the City, London, Architectural Press, 1990; Hugh Matthews, Melanie Limb, Mark Taylor, The street at thirdspace, in: Sarah Holloway and Gill Valentine (ed.), Children's Geography: Living, Playing, Learning, London, Routledge, 2000, p. 63–79.

8 J. Bavidge, Stories in Space, op. cit., p. 328.

9 Eric L. Tribuella, “Children's Literature and the Child Flâneur”, Children's Literature, nº 38, 2010, p. 64–91.

10 Ângela Balça, Fernando Azevedo, A cidade e as crianças na literatura infantil. Um estudo explo­ratório a partir de três obras, Álabe [online], nº 15, 2017, p. 1-11, DOI: https://doi.org/10.15645/Alabe2017.15.1.

11 Flávia Brocchetto Ramos, Lovani Volmer, O espaço urbano em narrativas do PNBE 2010, Trama, vol. 21, nº 11, 2015, p. 129–142.

12 Ana Margarida Ramos, Rui Ramos, “Urban and rural landscapes in Portuguese picture story books: reification and perceptions”, AILIJ – Anuario de Investigación en Literatura Infantil y Juvenil, nº 10, 2012, p. 105–120; Rui Ramos, Ana Margarida Ramos, Travelling from the city to the countryside: depictions of urban and rural scenarios in two Portuguese picturebooks, Calidoscópio [online], vol. 3, nº 12, 2014, p. 265–273, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4013/cld.2014.123.01.

13 Isabel Minhós Martins, Bernardo Carvalho, As Duas Estradas, Oeiras, Planeta Tangerina, 2009.

14 Carla Maia de Almeida, Alex Gozblau, Ainda Falta Muito?, Lisbon, Caminho, 2009.

15 Bernardo Carvalho, Trocoscópio, Carcavelos, Planeta Tangerina, 2010.

16 Word play with kaleidoscope (changing and/or mixing shapes).

17 Isabel Minhós Martins, Bernardo Carvalho, O mundo num segundo, Oeiras, Planeta Tangerina, 2008.

18 J. Bavidge, Stories in Space, op. cit., p. 320.

19 O. Jones, Naturally Not!”, op. cit., p. 28.

20 Kerry Mallan, Strolling through the (post)modern city: Modes of being a flaneur in picture books”, Lion and the Unicorn, vol. 1, nº 36, 2012, p. 56-74.

21 Isabel Minhós Martins, Madalena Matoso, Andar por aí, Oeiras, Planeta Tangerina, 2009.

22 Rosemary Ross Johnston, A Chronotope of Childhood in Narrative, in: Roger D. Sell (ed.), Children's Literature as Communication: The ChiLPA Project, New York, John Benjamins, 2002, p. 155.

23 Alice Vieira, Lote 12, 2.º frente, Lisbon, Editorial Caminho, 1980.

24 Isabel Minhós Martins, Bernardo Carvalho, A grande invasão, Oeiras, Planeta Tangerina, 2007.

25 Inês Fonseca Santos, Beatriz Bagulho, A Cidade, Lisbon, Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 2018.

26 The Centro Cultural de Belém, often abbreviated as CCB, is a prominent culture and arts complex located in the historical neighborhood of Belém, in Lisbon, Portugal. It was inaugurated in 1992 and has since become a hub for various cultural activities and events. It is known for its striking contemporary architecture, designed by Vittorio Gregotti and Manuel Salgado. The complex includes a range of facilities, such as concert halls, theaters, art galleries, conference rooms, and a large open plaza. It serves as a venue for concerts, exhibitions, theater performances, conferences, and other cultural events.

27 This small dimension is an important aspect of the Cultural Centre’s valorisation, since it becomes a more friendly space, including for children, with several playful areas.

28 Ana Margarida Ramos, Can a city map be a picturebook? Alternative publishing formats for children, in: Nina Goga, Sarah Hoem Iversen, and Anne-Stefi Teigland (ed.), Verbal and visual strategies in nonfiction picturebooks: Theoretical and analytical approaches, Oslo, Scandinavian University Press, 2021, p. 220–234, DOI: https://doi.org/10.18261/9788215042459-2021-16.

29 Susa Monteiro, Beja. A minha cidade, Lisbon, Pato Lógico, 2016.

30 Ana Seixas, Viseu. A minha cidade, Lisbon, Pato Lógico, 2017.

31 Catarina Sobral, Coimbra. A minha cidade, Lisbon, Pato Lógico, 2019.

32 Christophe Meunier, Children’s Picturebooks as cultural and geographic products: actors of spatialities, generator of spaces, paper for the 4th European Network of Picturebook Research conference : Text, image, ideology – Picturebooks as meeting places, September 2013, Stockholm, Stockholm University. Available at: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01182365/.

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Table des illustrations

Légende Illustration 1: Cover of the picturebook A Cidade [The City].
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/10418/img-1.jpg
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Légende Illustration 2: Cover and back of A Cidade.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/10418/img-2.jpg
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Légende Illustration 3: A Cidade, endpapers.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/10418/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 98k
Légende Illustration 4: Example of a double spread in the picturebook A Cidade.
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Ana Margarida Ramos, « The city as metaphor: constructing space meaning »Strenæ [En ligne], 23 | 2023, mis en ligne le 03 février 2024, consulté le 25 avril 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/10418 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/strenae.10418

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Ana Margarida Ramos

University of Aveiro, Portugal

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