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Okapi, a “fantastinouï”1 magazine for pre-teens in the spirit of May '68

Okapi, un journal fantastinouï pour les jeunes dans l’esprit de 68
Cécile Boulaire
Traduction de Elaine Briggs
Cet article est une traduction de :
Okapi, un journal fantastinouï pour les jeunes dans l’esprit de 68

Résumé

In 1971, the group Bayard Press brought out a magazine called Okapi for 7 to 12 year-olds. From the first number that came out, what was striking was the way in which the magazine captured the new educational ambitions of the generation of ‘68. A new behavioural model for the new generation developed: accessing information, framing demands for change, taking action. Yet, within the magazine, this spirit of protest existed alongside other more outmoded narratives, especially as regards the gender divide between boys and girls. My question is this: how can such discrepancies be explained? How did 1968 radicalism impact the Catholic culture of a youth press that had been around for several decades?

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Texte intégral

  • 1 Fantastinouï is a neologism created by children for Okapi magazine. It is a fusion of two words: fa (...)

1Launched in 1972, which is to say in the direct wake of the “events” of 1968, the children’s magazine Okapi would seem to be an excellent example of the dynamism and contradictions that characterised May 68. This article seeks to shed light on the ways in which the “spirit of 68” can be found in this magazine for children, which was unique in France at the time, and is today considered a classic in its genre.

2Okapi was created by a press group set up in 1873 by a Catholic congregation, the Augustinians of the Assumption, themselves founded in 1845. The objective of the Assumptionists had originally been to promote the Catholic faith from the threat of the rise of liberalism. Baptised the ‘Maison de la Bonne Presse’ [The House of the Good Press], the press group created several publications, notably the weekly newspaper Le Pèlerin [The Pilgrim] in 1873, followed by the daily La Croix [The Cross] in 1883, and then, in 1895, the family magazine Le Noël [Christmas], which included a supplement for the young from 1898 onwards.

Ill.1: Cover of L'Étoile noëliste, published by the Maison de la Bonne Presse, July 2, 1914. Source: Gallica, ark:/12148/bpt6k1166483k

  • 2 Charon Jean-Marie, "Lire et grandir en s'amusant, ou la grande aventure de la presse des jeunes", E (...)

3France has of course had serial publications for children since the end of the 18th century.2 The particularity of the titles produced by the Bonne Press lay first in their promotion of a Catholic vision of life in a hostile environment, with the secularisation of primary schools by the Jules Ferry laws in 1882, the forced exile of religious congregations in 1902, and the separation of Church and State in 1905. The second specificity of the Bonne Presse was to be found in the way it developed magazine titles adapted to each age group from small children to adolescents, as well as girls and boys, and this from the beginning of the 20th century onwards.

Ill.2: A sample of youth titles published by Bonne Presse: adaptation to each gender and age group, and will to conform to its time.

4A series of magazines would then follow over the course of the 20th century, each time adapting to changes in society. In the postwar period, the naming of the Father Wilfrid Dufault as superior general of the congregation led to a rejuvenation of their methods. An American, Father Dufault was aged only 45 years when he took office, and his aim was to modernise the material they produced for children and the young. To do this, he recruited young militants from the Catholic youth movements, notably Yves Beccaria. After having set up several new newspapers, Beccaria introduced a new title that was to become highly influential in the French children’s press field, and he called it Pomme d’api [after a famous French nursery rhyme]. Created in 1966, Pomme d’api was the first magazine in France to be aimed at pre-schoolers (4-7 years). In this period, the only other Catholic press group with titles for children, Fleurus, was in decline. While there were many secular magazines for the young, they were designed for entertainment, and were composed mainly of comic strips. With Pomme d’api, the Bonne Presse had found a successful formula. In response to the growing dechristianisation of France, the group changed its name to Bayard Press in 1969. The launch of Okapi in 1972 therefore represented continuity in two key ways: continuity with the age-specific publications produced by the group since the 19th century, and continuity with the new magazine Pomme d’api which was enjoying enormous success amongst the very young.

Ill.3 : Ad for Okapi published in Pomme d’Api n°65, July 15, 1971.

5In the secular and dechristianised France of 1972, the concepts of “progressivism” and “Catholicism” were not readily associated with one another – even if Vatican II had made considerable efforts to modernise Catholicism. The movement of May 1968 emerged out of Parisian students’ agitation, whose radical politics looked to the arguments of the non-Communist extreme left. It might seem paradoxical then to search for the spirit of 1968 in a magazine for the young created by a Catholic press group founded in the 19th century to combat the development of liberalism, particularly in education. The aim of this article is to show how the magazine Okapi, created in the context of a period dedicated to overturning the established order, also bore the marks of the agitation of 1968, just as much as it did the heritage of a century of Catholic publishing. Filled with contradictions, at once anti-modern and avant-garde, even radical in its aesthetic choices, it was also occasionally reactionary in its choice of treating certain subjects. It is perhaps here, in this fundamentally unstable character of the publication, that it translates most faithfully the spirit of 1968: as a moment of protest and experimentation that was not without its dark side (notably in its treatment of women) and its contradictions.

Ill. 4: Cover of Okapi n°1, October 1971.

6Straight away, from the first issue that came out, what was striking was the way in which the magazine captured the new educational ambitions of the generation of '68. Initially this was mainly though a strip cartoon story titled Chouette de Classe (Awesome Class) which related the everyday life of an ideal class. As the episodes went on, a new behavioural model for the new generation developed: providing information on current events, framing demands for change, and taking action. Yet, within the pages of magazine, this spirit of protest existed alongside other more outmoded narratives, especially as regards the gender divide between boys and girls. How can such discrepancies be explained?

A new educational model?

  • 3 https://www.nyrb.com/products/the-green-hand-and-other-stories?variant=30965876551

7The magazine made frequent use of comic strips, in a special blend of amateurism and boldness that was typical of those experimental times. In February 1973, Nicole Claveloux first brought out the character of Grabote, a character that readers loved to hate and who became the mascot for the magazine. This was the same Nicole Claveloux whose talent had come to the fore through the publishing venture of Harlin Quist, and who was also a prime representative of the alternative feminist scene of graphic novelists. Today, in a recent American edition of some of her later comics, she is understood to be “an unforgettable, unjustly neglected master of French comics3”.

Ill.5: First appearance of Grabote, Okapi n°30, February 1973.

8Nonetheless, it was the comic strip – much more classic in inspiration and often rather clumsily produced – that was first used by the magazine to convey an extremely bold discourse on education. The Chouette de Classe series was written by script writer Claude Gaignaire, and drawn by a young graphic artist, Marie-Marthe Collin. It followed the everyday life of a primary school class with schoolchildren the same age as Okapi readers. The teacher is seen developing a teaching method that is radical, humanistic and free-thinking.

9The very first episode is symbolic in that it narrates the election of students to the board of the school's cooperative – this is an association derived from Freinet's teaching methods that empowered children both on and off school premises. Chouette de Classe stages a daring new teaching method that is based on free collective initiative, observation and experimentation. The children visit a museum by themselves and study life sciences on their own initiative; they have study strips at the seaside and in the winter go skiing with the school. They take decisions collectively such as when the students ask for some of tarmac to be removed from the playground so they can have a special area for playing marbles. Even the teacher's actions are debated if something unfair happens.

Ill.6: First appearance of the comic strip “Chouette de classe”, Okapi n°1, October 1971.

  • 4 N°69, September 1974.
  • 5 N°76, January 1975.

10The school's headmaster however embodies older methods and also the grumbling voices of a section of contemporary society which did not approve of the new values: and I quote: "You too often let them do exactly what they want4." The magazine's editorial board responded to the headmaster's message, or rather to the reluctant parents he represents: "The Chouette de Classe is an ideal class because both pupils and teacher co-exist harmoniously, continually striving to ensure that each child is in the best possible place, and is able to fulfil the role that best suits them5." What was the outcome to which this new teaching method was supposed to lead?

Ill.7: “Chouette de classe”, Okapi n°69, September 1974.

Questioning, Acting

  • 6 N°72, November 1974.

11Autonomy and awareness of responsibility in the Chouette de Classe seem to be the watchwords that Okapi communicates to readers who write in. Indeed, the desire for the magazine to respond to the spirit of 1968 seems to come, initially at least, from the readers themselves, in their letters to the magazine. Many children send letters to the paper expressing fears, their outlook on the world and their desire to do something for it. They want to protect wildlife, prevent pollution in the cities where they live. A girl called Béatrice for example raises a cry for action against the Péchiney company which was setting up a fluorine quarry in Vézelay6. Okapi responds by supplying the addresses of wildlife protection groups, and later, groups helping children orphaned in the Vietnam war. The concerns of the young readers very quickly shift from the wildlife cause to the injustices of war and poverty.

  • 7 Editorial, n°32, March 1973.

12Though the magazine could have contented itself with articles on animal welfare or crafts activities, editorial policy became politically active, inviting readers to get involved at an early age: "Soon you'll be able to vote when you're 19. But today, you can be interested in politics, because you are the ones who are building the world you'll be living in for a long time7." In the same issue, a feature titled Dis-moi Denys (Tell me Denys) shows a mother whose involvement in a consumer group gives her children the idea of protesting against the demolition of their playground.

Ill.8: “Dis-moi Denys”, Okapi n°32, March 1973.

  • 8 N°49, November 1973.
  • 9 N°74, December 1974.
  • 10 N°77, February 1975.
  • 11 N°34, April 1973.

The idea is to initiate young readers in collective action. They are pre-teens who need explanations and guidance because they want to do something, to be involved. Pierre, for instance, wants to hear about the workers' strike at the Lip8 watch-making factory. The comic strip Route Libre (Freeway) refers to confrontations between steel workers at Fos-sur-Mer and the CRS9 riot police, while the feature Ça c'est la vie (That's Life) highlights the way poor families are thrown out of their houses and re-housed in the suburbs10. Dis-moi Denys wonders "why is it that in France the Africans and the Portuguese do all the hard work11", concluding "this abnormal state of affairs is no longer acceptable". Okapi does not avoid the tough subjects.

13But readers want to go further. The following month, a young reader notes that the subject has not been dealt with in full, to which the editors suggest that action is needed: "Denys could have answered that 'the world is not fair' […] but I think he wanted to you to ponder the question yourself, to learn to react and want things to change for foreign workers." The message is clear – Okapi is telling its readers that it is "Time for outrage!"

Ill.9: “Dis-moi Denys”, Okapi n°34, April 1973.

  • 12 May 1975.

14The magazine started out along relatively classical lines with a lot of features on games and animals, in response to their readers’ requests, something new came to the fore: social justice. The topic was dealt with mainly in Dis-moi Denys, a feature created to give straight answers to readers' queries. Soon, questions were not so much about religion and daily life but more about social issues. Between September 1974 and May 1975, Dis-moi Denys devoted thirteen issues to debates on justice. Starting with everyday phrases like "It's fair/It's not fair" with ideas based on Biblical references, the feature soon went on to consider social justice and ended with two issues on late 19th century politician Jean Jaurès and his stand against social injustice. The last episode celebrates "the unassuming march of workers acting for justice. It is hoped that all the efforts made throughout the world for a better distribution of the earth's wealth and for a reduction in the gap between those who have everything and those who have nothing will finally bring about a Society where all people will come together in true companionship"12. The Christian message clearly combines here with the workers' struggle for social justice.

  • 13 "Voir plus loin que le bout de son nez", n°79, March 1975.

15The link with the young readers' daily lives is made explicit13: "In your life at school, you are part of a group. […] No one can do much by themselves. The causes of injustice have to be made known and action taken in a movement of solidarity. […] We can all work together so justice moves forward in Society." This is clearly further encouragement not only to have a sense of outrage but to act.

  • 14 N°22, 1-15 October 1972.
  • 15 N°33, 15-31 March 1973.

16In this way, the full impact of the image and motto of Il faut agir (We need to act) can be understood when it came out with issue n°44 in the form of a stick-on badge for readers who had asked for a T-shirt in the magazine colours. The motto derived from an episode in the comic strip Couscous et Cannelle14 (Couscous and Cinnamon), which had already been used to illustrate one of the Dis-moi Denys15 features, and showed just how enthusiastic the editorial board were for the image of the two little characters, a boy and a girl whose fists were raised in protest. Collective action, initially through protest against injustice, was one of the ideas that the review, which first came out in 1971, presented to the children of May 1968. Had the Augustinians of the Assumption created a revolutionary review?

Ill.10: Okapi, n°44, September 1973.

Outmoded Foundations

17This is by no means certain. A press group that had been going strong for nearly a century could not transform overnight into a radical breeding ground. The reality is far more complex, and inside Okapi several realities co-existed, sometimes to the point of incoherence.

  • 16 N°51, December 1973.
  • 17 For instance n°20, September 1972.

18Initially, the tone of the magazine remained true to the values of the Catholic youth movements – hygienism, healthy camaraderie, the emancipating value of work and physical effort, the spirit of Christian charity and even sacrifice. In an episode of Chouette de classe16, one of the girls in the class wins a doll on the lottery and decides to give it to little Jamila who lives in a shanty town close to the social housing where she and her family live. Documentary features in the magazine extolled work in the open air, risk taking and selflessness as for instance in life-saving rescue work. The children who feature in the regular strip cartoon Chouette de classe always go on holiday to the mountains or the countryside where as young city-dwellers they become acquainted with the hard physical labour endured by peasant farmers and shepherds17. Exaltation of life in the open air and corporal development through physical effort go hand in hand with latently anti-modernist views, such as castigating television which made children passive, and life in the polluted cities. The temptation to reproduce a reactionary discourse opposing town and country, modernity and tradition, production and consumption is apparent. Seen in this light, the magazine sometimes employed the rhetoric of the past.

19The area in which such traditional values were strongest was gender. For the first few years, the magazine implicitly observed a strict gender division of household chores, characters and skills. It fell to women, for instance, to make the meals. The early issues published lists of jobs for which the time-honoured skills divide was maintained: women were 'ski instructresses' or 'nurses', men were 'site managers' or 'pilots'. In Chouette de classe, the president and treasurer of the school cooperative are boys, while the only girl is relegated to the role of secretary.

20Gender stereotypes are further underlined in the stories: girls are airheads who do the cleaning and ironing; in the strip cartoon called Oncle McHaskett, a little girl called Peluche (Fluffy Toy) promises she will never touch a steering-wheel again because she is such a bad driver.

Ill.11: A few depictions of feminine characters in Okapi between 1971 and 1974

  • 18 N°32, March 1973.
  • 19 N°37, May 1973.

21Editorial discourse is likewise ambivalent. With the new mixed schools, Okapi recommends girls to show an interest in the boys' games, but does not suggest the reverse18. To the question "Why can't women do the same jobs as men?"19, the editors reply that women are not as strong as men which means that many professions are not open to them, and especially being a mother, which is exclusive to women, takes up a lot of time and care: "It's a real job that prevents women from doing something else."

  • 20 "Dis-moi Denys", n°31, February 1973.
  • 21 "Dis-moi Denys", n°62, June 1974.
  • 22 N°73, November 1974.

22In addition to such stereotyping, the discourse on the use of physical force is very curious. There are several descriptions of conflict situations where a character or a reader is encouraged to behave in a "virile" manner, i.e. by fighting. One reader who is bullied at school20 is told that he should take up judo so he can fight back: "If you stood up for yourself, you wouldn't need to write to me and you wouldn't have had all this trouble!" Another reader who writes in to say he doesn't like fighting21 is told: "When you respect yourself, you don't let yourself get pushed around all the time. And you're ready to fight even though you might be the worse for it." In Chouette de classe, Bruno, the top of the class who is teased by the others, takes up boxing with a former professional so he can toughen up and earn his classmates' respect22. The message is clear: gender division relies on an outmoded view of virility; masculinity is linked to physical strength and an ability to use violence… an outlook where girls have little role to play.

23In all these ways the magazine bears traces of an outdated, sexist, anti-modern ideology. And yet it is here in 1973-1974 that an explicit, clear-sighted, guilt-free discourse on the human body, sexuality and sensuality was to develop.

The "will to knowledge"

  • 23 N°50, December 1973.

24Discussion of such issues was in fact requested by readers as soon as the magazine came out. In December 197323, a young reader called Carmen asked Okapi to do an issue on babies, "especially the baby inside the mother's tummy, because I have a talk to do in class."

  • 24 N°49, November 1973.

25In 1973, Dis-moi Denys dealt with the question "What is sexuality?24". This time, however, the discourse did not hark back to the past: "The parts of the body which differ from boys to girls refer to gender. Sexuality is a drive that attracts boys and girls, men and women to one another. A drive that attracts them with their hearts and also their bodies, and which makes them want to transcend themselves. Love, wanting to have children, wanting to be physically happy and to 'live', all that is part of sexuality…" The article concludes with an invitation for children to express themselves: "Living simply, naturally, also means getting the right information when you want to learn about something. No question is ever stupid or shameful. To live to the full, you need to be aware of everything about life."

Ill.12: “Dis-moi Denys”, Okapi n°49, November 1973.

26From February to May 1974, files with questionnaires and documents on the human body and birth appeared in succession. Illustrations included full representation of both genders. Each file contained a splendid double-page spread by Nicole Claveloux, an expressionistic fantasy that lent a dreamlike interpretation of the information provided in the text, and also underlined the magazine's attachment to a spiritual aesthetic for life. Nicole Claveloux's imagery was greatly inspired by the 'flower power' movement, and echoed the text that was also very lyrical: "You the boy, and you the girl are very similar apart from your sex organs. […] Your sexuality pervades your body and mind. It is part of the drive for life which impels you to reach out to others, to explore the world, to create works of art, build houses, sail across the oceans, write poetry… […] Like a fresh water current, sexuality draws out ribbons of sunlight that encircle the earth and reflect the sky."

Ill.13: Okapi n°56, March 1974, Univers "Mon corps vivant (2)", drawing by Nicole Claveloux.

Ill.14: Okapi n°56, March 1974, Univers "Mon corps vivant (2)", drawing by Volker Theinhardt.

27This lyricism is offset by the following double-page spread which presented two anatomically exact illustrations with very explicit descriptions: "If you are a girl, […] between your legs there is a tightly closed, little pink cleft, protected by your thighs. […] It opens onto a long canal which is supple and moist. This is the vagina leading into the uterus above. […] If you are a boy, your main sexual organs are external and visible. They are the penis, which can become hard, and two small rounds sacs on either side, the testicles." Further on, the sex act itself is referred to: "This transmission is done by the man's penis with which he gently penetrates the woman's vagina." In File n° 61 on birth, Monique Gaudriault was asked to illustrate the birthing process, and Colette Portal to sketch three stages of the baby's head coming out of the vagina.

  • 25 Readers' mail, n°61.

28In less than four months, Okapi unveiled the mysteries of the human body, a fascinating topic for readers who were old enough to be reading the magazine. The editors commented: "[We] do not see why the story of the body should not be told. It is a beautiful, simple story and yet so amazing25." For a magazine that tended to limit boys' and girls' roles in society, this was bold indeed.

Conclusion

29This brief outline has necessarily omitted many aspects of the Okapi adventure, yet it highlights one very obvious point: revolutions do not happen overnight. Some of the ventures which started up around 1968 soon fizzled out, but Okapi was set up by a century-old press group that wanted the magazine to last. For this reason it could not be restricted to a purely radical outlook, as this would have alienated an important part of its readership. The first editorial team that Denys Prache brought together had to come to terms with not only the mindset of the Bayard publishing house, but also a necessarily hybrid editorial team which held differing convictions, and the readers, both children and parents, who on occasion were very vocal in their reactions to the magazine's bolder initiatives. One episode of Grabote harks back to 1973 when issues of Okapi were burnt by unhappy readers! The magazine inherited views that were sometimes reactionary, but also showed a burning faith in educational reform. It was this enthusiasm for transmitting such ideas that impelled the magazine toward themes that were spectacularly brave. The team was convinced that when children were involved, it was vital to speak to them honestly, even when the topic was sex. Were they then free from any taboo? Of course not. In February 1975, a few weeks after abortion was legalized in France following the bill put forward by Simone Veil, a young reader called Élisabeth wrote in asking: "What is abortion?" A sensitive issue to which the editorship rather pathetically replied: "Why don't you talk about it with your parents?", adding only a few brief items of information. In the mid 1970s, in the publishing world and the youth press, certain barriers could not be broken down. Have we broken through since? This is a moot point.

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Notes

1 Fantastinouï is a neologism created by children for Okapi magazine. It is a fusion of two words: fantastique and inouï (extraordinary, awesome).

2 Charon Jean-Marie, "Lire et grandir en s'amusant, ou la grande aventure de la presse des jeunes", Ela. Études de linguistique appliquée, 2003/2 (no 130), p. 223-236. URL: https://www-cairn-info.proxy.scd.univ-tours.fr/revue-ela-2003-2-page-223.htm

3 https://www.nyrb.com/products/the-green-hand-and-other-stories?variant=30965876551

4 N°69, September 1974.

5 N°76, January 1975.

6 N°72, November 1974.

7 Editorial, n°32, March 1973.

8 N°49, November 1973.

9 N°74, December 1974.

10 N°77, February 1975.

11 N°34, April 1973.

12 May 1975.

13 "Voir plus loin que le bout de son nez", n°79, March 1975.

14 N°22, 1-15 October 1972.

15 N°33, 15-31 March 1973.

16 N°51, December 1973.

17 For instance n°20, September 1972.

18 N°32, March 1973.

19 N°37, May 1973.

20 "Dis-moi Denys", n°31, February 1973.

21 "Dis-moi Denys", n°62, June 1974.

22 N°73, November 1974.

23 N°50, December 1973.

24 N°49, November 1973.

25 Readers' mail, n°61.

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Table des illustrations

Légende Ill.1: Cover of L'Étoile noëliste, published by the Maison de la Bonne Presse, July 2, 1914. Source: Gallica, ark:/12148/bpt6k1166483k
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 216k
Légende Ill.2: A sample of youth titles published by Bonne Presse: adaptation to each gender and age group, and will to conform to its time.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 204k
Légende Ill.3 : Ad for Okapi published in Pomme d’Api n°65, July 15, 1971.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Légende Ill. 4: Cover of Okapi n°1, October 1971.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 212k
Légende Ill.5: First appearance of Grabote, Okapi n°30, February 1973.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 244k
Légende Ill.6: First appearance of the comic strip “Chouette de classe”, Okapi n°1, October 1971.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 360k
Légende Ill.7: “Chouette de classe”, Okapi n°69, September 1974.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 420k
Légende Ill.8: “Dis-moi Denys”, Okapi n°32, March 1973.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 372k
Légende Ill.9: “Dis-moi Denys”, Okapi n°34, April 1973.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 404k
Légende Ill.10: Okapi, n°44, September 1973.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 244k
Légende Ill.11: A few depictions of feminine characters in Okapi between 1971 and 1974
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 164k
Légende Ill.12: “Dis-moi Denys”, Okapi n°49, November 1973.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 220k
Légende Ill.13: Okapi n°56, March 1974, Univers "Mon corps vivant (2)", drawing by Nicole Claveloux.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 316k
Légende Ill.14: Okapi n°56, March 1974, Univers "Mon corps vivant (2)", drawing by Volker Theinhardt.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/docannexe/image/1901/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 330k
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Référence électronique

Cécile Boulaire, « Okapi, a “fantastinouï” magazine for pre-teens in the spirit of May '68 », Strenæ [En ligne], 13 | 2018, mis en ligne le 15 mai 2018, consulté le 23 septembre 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/strenae/1901 ; DOI : 10.4000/strenae.1901

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Auteur

Cécile Boulaire

Laboratoire InTRu
Université François-Rabelais
3 rue des Tanneurs
BP 4103
37041 TOURS Cedex 01 – FR
Email: cecile.boulaire@univ-tours.fr

Cécile Boulaire is Associate Professor in French Children’s Literature accredited to direct doctoral research at the University of Tours. She is a specialist in the history of publishing for children (19th-20th centuries) and the aesthetics of the picturebook. She is currently Head of the Department of French Literature at the University of Tours. She is the senior editor of the academic online journal Strenæ, recherches sur les livres et objets culturels de l’enfance (Strenae, Research into children’s books and the material culture of childhood), and she is the co-founder, with Laurent Gerbier, of the series “Iconotextes” with the University of Tours Press. Her most recent monograph is entitled Les Petits livres d’or. Des albums pour enfants dans la France de la guerre froide [Little Golden Books. Picturebooks for children in Cold War France] (PUFR, 2016), and she is currently preparing a book on how to analyse picturebooks for the children’s publisher Didier Jeunesse.

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