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EB IVB pottery from Tell Qaramel (western Syria)

Dorota Ławecka
p. 201-234

Résumés

Tell Qaramel est situé à l’ouest de la Syrie, dans la vallée de Queiq, sur sa rive ouest. Le site fouillé entre 1999 et 2011 par une mission archéologique syro-polonaise est surtout réputé pour abriter les vestiges d’un peuplement néolithique, mais il comportait aussi les restes de l’âge de Bronze. Le but de cet article est de présenter le matériel céramique du Bronze ancien IVB découvert pendant les campagnes archéologiques 2000 et 2001.

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Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 1 Preliminary reports on the field activities can be found in consecutive volumes of Polish Archaeolo (...)
  • 2 Mazurowski 2000, p. 286 f.

1Tell Qaramel is located in western Syria, ca 25 km to the north of Aleppo, on the western bank of the Queiq River valley (fig. 1). Excavations of a Syrian-Polish archaeological expedition, co-directed by Prof. R. Mazurowski and Dr B. Jamous (superseded by N. Awad, T. Yartah, Y. Al-Dabti and Dr Y. Kanjou), started there in spring of 1999 and were conducted till 2011. 1 Although the site is mostly renowned for its early Neolithic settlement, it also yielded remnants of later occupation, dating up to the Hellenistic period. 2

Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Map of northwestern Syria showing location of the sites mentioned in the text

© D. Ławecka

  • 3 Mazurowski & Yartah 2002, p. 301. The wall of Locus 6 in best preserved area was first spotted ca 1 (...)

2During the field seasons of 2000 and 2001, an undisturbed layer of Early Bronze IV date resting directly on Pre-Pottery Neolithic remains was explored in trench K5 (fig. 2). The pottery assemblage presented below comes for the most part from two structures: Locus 12 and Locus 6, the latter just partly explored (fig. 3). 3

Figure 2.

Figure 2.

Tell Qaramel, plan of the site showing excavated areas (1999-2007, after Mazurowski 2010, p. 566, fig. 1)

Figure 3.

Figure 3.

Tell Qaramel, trench K5. Remains of EB IV structures (after Mazurowski & Yartah 2002, p. 302, fig. 8)

3Locus 6, situated in the northern part of the trench and partially outside its limit, consisted of a large, oval depression sloping towards the center, with floor made of white gypsum or chalk, surrounded on the east by walls made of stone and on the west, by walls of small pebbles and mud. Both the shape of the structure and its fill (layers of grey, ashy earth with charred grain remains) point to its possible function as a grain silo. It could be accessed by a corridor limited by stone walls abutting the oval structure, leading to an entrance located on the southern side of the silo.

4Locus 12 in the southern part of the trench was a very regular round pit with a flat bottom, 2.56 m in diameter and 2.4 m deep. A particularly abundant collection of pottery was retrieved from this pit, the purpose of which remains unclear. The pit was filled with alternating layers of gray earth, red mud and black ash; although in secondary context, sherds from locus 12 seem to constitute a homogenous group with pottery from locus 6, both coming from the same occupational level. An overwhelming majority of pottery presented here (15 vessels and 225 sherds) comes from these two structures, with occasional fragments yielded by the same layer in trench K5.

The pottery

5The majority of the vessels is wheel-made (except for most Kitchen Ware vessels and storage jars that seem to have been usually hand-made and only finished on the wheel). The pottery presented here is exclusively mineral-tempered, almost invariably with sand and/or limestone (which is easily accessible in the nearest vicinity of the site), or —in the case of Kitchen Ware sherds— with calcite particles. Simple Ware fine and common vessels are usually well fired, and both the shapes and the fabrics are largely standardized.

  • 4 Known also as “Hama beakers/goblets”, “Corrugated Ware”, or “Simple Ware” (Welton & Cooper 2014, p (...)
  • 5 According to Welton & Cooper 2014, p. 328, it is still unknown if the goblets were first made by h (...)

6An extensive collection of goblets and conical cups was found, some of them intact or fully restorable (pl. 1-3, 8: 15-22, 14: 3-5). They belong to a ceramic assemblage characteristic primarily for western inland Syria in the EB IV period, which used to be called the “Caliciform Ware”. 4 Goblets are of various proportions, from rather long and slender (pl. 2: 1-5) to quite pot-bellied in shape (pl. 1: 2). The bottoms are invariably equipped with ring bases (no flat or bell-shaped bases are present among the fully preserved specimens); the rims are usually beaded, sometimes shaped as a flattened bead. They are, as a rule, well fired, wheel-made and corrugated in the upper half of their bodies. 5 Their fabric is rather fine, tempered with thin sand and small limestone particles (sometimes quite abundant and visible on the surface). The surface color is usually pale yellow or very pale brown, more rarely reddish yellow, pink or light grey.

  • 6 Sala 2012, p. 65-72.

7Contrary to the EB IVB pottery assemblage from Tell Mardikh, which abounds in painted vessels, 6 only the upper parts of a few painted goblets were found, with simple or slightly out-turned rims (pl. 14: 3-5). The paint is black/dark grey or dark red on very pale brown or pale yellow background. The painted patterns are typical for the EB IVB period (with close analogies in early EB IVB material from Tell Mardikh and other sites, cf. Appendix) and consists of horizontal bands of varying width, wavy lines (pl. 14: 3, 4), or horizontal painted bands with very fine combed belt cutting through the painted decoration (pl. 14: 5). Two bell-shaped bases shown in pl. 9: 15, 16 most probably belonged to the painted specimens.

  • 7 Cf. Welton & Cooper 2014, p. 332, pl. 4: 1, 2.

8The majority of small, thin-walled conical cups are of the corrugated variety (pl. 3: 1-13) with straight or slightly curved sides and simple rims. They were made of fine clay, tempered with tiny limestone particles and fine-grained sand. The surface color is usually light, from very pale-light brown to pale yellow, reddish yellow and pink. Usually the bottoms are flat, with traces of string-cutting visible. The cup shown in pl. 3: 5 is the only example of slightly incised ring base. 7

  • 8 Cf. Sconzo 2007, p. 262.

9Quite often the color or shade of the lower part of the goblets’ and bowls’ outside surface differs from that of their upper parts, but the difference is usually slight, e.g. yellow vs. buff, yellowish green vs. green, brown vs. darker brown. This seems to have resulted from a particular arrangement of the vessels inside the kiln, where they were stacked upside down, partially one inside another, which produced somewhat different firing conditions for the covered and the uncovered vessel parts. 8

10The other Simple Ware vessels (bowls, jars, pots) are of good quality and sand- and limestone tempered; only the intensity of the filler, proportion of the components and size of particles varies. Only few sherds seem to be lacking the limestone temper. The vessels were made of fine clay, and are generally well fired, hard and wet-smoothed. Overfired sherds are rare, but in some instances the limestone (?) grains look as if they had melted and partially evaporated.

  • 9 Matthers 1981, p. 343, fig. 208: 3-14, 36.
  • 10 Mazzoni 2002, p. 79 and 94, pl. XLIV: 122, 123.
  • 11 Fugmann 1958, p. 80, fig. 103: 3C 89.

11A sizeable collection of medium-sized bowls was found. Their surface is always light colored, from light red and brown to very pale brown and pale yellow. When the shape is complete, those bowls feature ring bases. Two most typical varieties of these bowls are attested: one with a carination and an upright or inverted, beaded rim (pl. 4: 1-12), the other without carination, with rounded body and crescentic, inverted, sometimes grooved or externally modelled rim, occasionally with a cordon below the rim (pl. 5: 1-13, 16). The best general analogy is provided by the pottery from a kiln dump at Tell Kadrich. 9 No typical grooved-rim bowls, predominant in the Tell Mardikh area and probably introduced from the Euphrates area, 10 were attested. However, in the sequence from Hama, these bowls appear late, that is in level J1, which may account for their absence in the Qaramel collection. 11

12The jars’ surface is also light-colored, mostly pale yellow or pale/very pale brown, more rarely light red or light reddish brown. They come in two most common varieties: thin-walled jars with everted, beaded (pl. 6: 1, 7) or double-folded rims (e.g. pl. 6: 3-6, 8-10, 12-13), and those with thickened, everted rim (e.g. pl. 7: 2, 3, 5-9). A few sherds with potter’s marks, widely attested in the middle Euphrates and western Syria regions, were found (pl. 7: 1, 2, 4, 14; pl. 10: 1-3). The marks are very simple and were incised on the shoulders of jars or pots. Storage jars seem to be hand-made and then finished on the wheel. In some instances (pl. 10: 12-15) traces of the manufacturing technique of the rim are clearly visible, indicating that the rim was turned outside and then joined to the vessel’s body.

13Kitchen Ware (Coarse Ware) is represented almost exclusively by pots and bowls (pl. 11-13). Both are rather irregular and not fully symmetrical. Apparently, they were hand-made, but tiny concentric traces (especially frequent on bowls) visible on many sherds show that the final shaping was commonly done on the wheel. Usually, such traces are visible in the upper part, up to ca 3 cm below the rim, inside and/or outside the vessel. The surface color is usually very pale to light brown, but frequently the sherds are blackened with smoke, their lower parts heat-damaged and crumbling. Several pots show traces of burnishing, and generally both pots and bowls were roughed in their lower parts. The pots are globular, with a simple everted rim. Quite numerous fragments belonged to large bowls (around 40 cm in diameter) with horizontal lugs up to 14 cm wide.

14Even if not overheated, sherds of Kitchen Ware vessels were friable and easily broken into fragments. The dominant temper in this category was calcite, usually fine to middle sized, occurring sometimes in large quantities; no basalt temper was noticed.

  • 12 Braidwood & Braidwood 1960, p. 434, fig. 334: 8, 10. Good parallel is provided by Van Loon 2001, f (...)
  • 13 Akin to Van Loon 2001, pl. 5A.22c (Simple Ware).

15Sherds shown in pl. 14 and 15 stand out from the rest by their shape and surface treatment or decoration. Apart from the three painted goblet fragments mentioned above, three other sherds are decorated with an incised leaf or corn-spike motif (pl. 14: 1, 2, 6). Most probably they belong to some kind of pedestal bowls. The fabric of all three sherds closely resembles the Kitchen Ware, with clearly visible sand and rather fine but abundant calcite temper. The bodies (pl. 14: 1, 2) are hand-made, while the foot of the best preserved example (pl. 14: 3) is wheel-made; in its upper part a fragment of an original edge of an opening remained intact. Foot fragments of pedestal bowls from Amuq J phase, although of different shape, are also executed in the Kitchen Ware. 12 Alternatively, the first two fragments might belong to a kind of a tall pot-stand. 13

  • 14 Braidwood & Braidwood 1960, p. 432 and 434, fig. 334: 22-25; cf. also e.g. Fugmann 1958, p. 77, fi (...)

16Sherds with impressed pattern (pl. 15: 1-3) belong to large, thick-walled vessels of unknown shape (since there was no clue as to their correct position, the way they are shown in the plate is arbitrary). The fabric of the two sherds (pl. 15: 2, 3) conforms to standard Kitchen Ware. By analogy with sherds from Amuq J and other sites, our specimens can be thought to originate from the bottom part of vessels, a kind of reversed “husking trays” the surface of which was deliberately roughened by impressions. 14

  • 15 Falb, Porter & Pruß 2014, p. 185, 192-195.

17Fragments shown in pl. 15: 7, 8 belong to a type of rather small flasks known as “Syrian bottles” characteristic for the area of western Syria in the second half of 3rd millennium bc. The surface of both fragments is grey and decorated with spiral, burnished bands. The first fragment is of a good quality, well fired and hard, with fine limestone temper. The body of the second specimen is badly damaged and peeling, but both display characteristics of Black Euphrates Banded Ware. 15

Dating and analogies

18The pottery collection from Tell Qaramel can be dated to the EB IVB, most likely to the initial part of this period. Apart from analogies shown in Appendix, this dating is based on the following characteristic features:

  • All corrugated goblets from trench K5 have ring bases (pl. 1: 1-4, 2: 1-5, 8: 17-22). According to L. Welton and L. Cooper, in inland western Syria the bases of the earliest corrugated goblets (ENL 4) are generally flat or slightly footed, but they often develop ring bases later in that period. Our collection of ring bases is best paralleled among specimens from Tell Rifaʾat and Tell Kadrich in the River Queiq area. 16 The latest forms exhibit bell-shaped bases. Only two such bases were found (pl. 9: 15, 16), but they might rather belong to the painted goblet variety. 17 Goblets with beaded rims still occur in early EB IVB, but this rim type decreases in frequency over time throughout the period. 18
  • Three painted goblet fragments (pl. 14: 3-5) with their red or black decoration consisting of wavy lines, horizontal bands and reserved combed decoration, have very good parallels in early EB IVB material from Tell Mardikh and among Hama J goblets characteristic for the J5 horizon. 19 Goblets of that kind, painted red or black appeared at Tell Mardikh only in layers postdating the destruction of Palace G, which mark the beginning of the EB IVB period. 20 The goblet painted with black or red bands, with incised wavy lines is a hallmark of this period in the Tell Tayinat sequence as well. 21
  • A large collection of conical bowls (pl. 3), both straight-sided and with slightly curving sides seems to indicate the early position of the Tell Qaramel pottery assemblage in the EB IVB sequence. In the Amuq region straight-sided, often corrugated cups continue into the early part of phase J (EB IVB), when they are replaced with cups with thicker walls and curving sides. Early in phase J conical cups are still numerous, being greatly outnumbered by goblets only toward the end of the phase. 22
  • A small collared-rim bowl shown in pl. 6: 16 is similar to vessels from Tell Shiyukh Tahtani, being one of the “major diagnostic types of the final EB IV period”, common also on other sites in the upper Syrian Euphrates valley. 23 In the Middle Euphrates region it is a new and distinctive feature of the EME (Early Middle Euphrates) 5 period. 24 Also characteristic for this phase is a multiple grooved rim type, which occurs on a variety of jar types. 25
  • Large Kitchen Ware bowls with a thickened rim and external ledge handles are very common in our material. They appear in Tell Mardikh in an early EB IVB context, and external, plain ledge handles are generally the hallmarks of the EB IVB period in inland western Syria and in the Middle Euphrates region. 26
  • The “Syrian Bottle” presented in pl. 15: 7, although rimless, seems to be preserved well enough to attribute it to type 3 according to P. Sconzo’s classification. 27 This type is the most widespread of all “Syrian bottles”, but occurs most frequently from the Middle Euphrates area to the southern Upper Khabur region and is dated, according to the ARCANE periodization, to late EME 4 and 5 and EJZ (Early Jezirah) 4a-b, ca 2340–2100. 28 The EB IVB date for the Tell Qaramel pottery is consistent with the parallels listed in Appendix.

Conclusion

  • 29 Welton & Cooper 2014.
  • 30 Mazzoni 2002, p. 70 f.; on the existence in EB IVB of a ceramic horizon extending over the whole n (...)

19Although the pottery presented here displays some features characteristic for the EB IVA repertoire (especially among corrugated goblets which, however, still occur in the EB IVB contexts), the presence of sherds belonging to the later, EB IVB tradition (like few painted fragments and other examples discussed above) points rather to the early EB IVB period for the Tell Qaramel collection. It belongs to the core area of the pottery tradition of inland western Syria, characterized by the occurrence of vessels belonging to the assemblage which used to be traditionally called the “Caliciform Ware”. 29 The best parallels can be found in an area between the Amuq plain and Umm el-Marra in the north to Tell Mardikh and Hama in the south, a territory well integrated culturally due to the existence of important crossways and trade routes linking these areas. 30 Less frequent but still substantial analogies exist with pottery from the middle Euphrates valley.

I sincerely thank both anonymous reviewers for their valuable remarks and comments.

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Annexe

Appendix: Comparisons between the Tell Qaramel repertoire and pottery from other north-western Syrian sites

Pl. Comparanda: site References Dating
1: 1 Umm el-Marra Schwartz et al. 2003 p. 339, fig. 23:7 Terminal EB IVA
1: 2 Tell Mastuma Wakita 2009, p. 67, fig. 3:8:4 Early EB IVB
1: 3 Tell Rifaʾat Matthers 1981, p. 339, fig. 206:7 EB IV
1: 4 Tell KadrichAnsari-AleppoUmm el-Marra Matthers 1981, p. 343, fig. 208:16 Suleiman 1984, pl. II:3 Schwartz et al. 2012, p. 164, fig. 9:6 Schwartz et al. 2006, p. 621, fig. 21:16 EB IV2400-2200EB IVBMid–late EB IVA
1: 5 Ansari-AleppoUmm el-Marra Suleiman 1984, pl. 2:6 Schwartz et al. 2006, p. 621, fig. 21:16 2400-2200 Mid–late EB IVA
1: 8 Umm el-Marra Schwartz et al. 2006, p. 621, fig. 21:15 Mid–late EB IVA
2: 1 Tell Kadrich Matthers 1981, p. 343, fig. 208:19 EB IV
2: 11 Umm el-Marra Schwartz et al. 2012, p. 164, fig. 9:4 EB IVB
3: 1 Umm el-Marra Schwartz et al. 2006, p. 621, fig. 21:12 Mid–late EB IVA
3: 6 Selenkahiye Van Loon 2001, pl. 5A.5:d Late, 2250-2000
3: 14 Tell Tuqan Peyronel 2008, p. 59, fig. 21:1 EB IV
3: 15 ZalaquiyateTell Mardikh Al-Maqdissi & Yabroudi 1987, p. 294, fig. 2:5 Matthiae 2007, p. 510, fig. 25, second row from the top, left side EB IVEB IVB1
3: 16 Tell Shiyukh TahtaniUmm el-Marra Sconzo 2007, p. 260, fig. 17:11:5 Schwartz et al. 2006, p. 621, fig. 21:11 Late 3rd mill.Mid–late EB IVA
3: 19 Tell Mardikh Sala 2012: p. 60, fig. 8:22 Early EB IVB
3: 20 Tell Mastuma Tsuneki 2009, p. 79, fig. 3.21:25 EB IVB
4: 2 Umm el-Marra Schwartz et al. 2003, p. 339, fig. 23:2 Late EB IVA
4: 4 Tell TuqanTell Halawa A Peyronel 2008, p. 59, fig. 21:1 Hempelmann 2005, Taf. 2:32 EB IVEB IV
4: 5 Tell Mardikh Matthiae 2007, p. 510, fig. 26, second row, first from the right EB IVB2
4: 6 Tell Mardikh Sala 2012, p. 60, fig. 8:29 Early EB IVB
4: 7 Tell Kadrich Matthers 1981, p. 343, fig. 208:6 EB IV
4: 12 Tall Munbāqa Czichon & Werner 2008, Taf. 11:4828 EB IV
4: 16 Tell Tuqan Peyronel 2008, p. 59, fig. 21:3 EB IVB
5: 11 Tell Tuqan Peyronel 2008, p. 59, fig. 21:5 EB IVB
6: 4 Tell Tuqan Peyronel 2008, p. 59, fig. 21:13 EB IVB
6: 5 Tell Kadrich Matthers 1981, p. 343, fig. 208:31 EB IV
6: 9 Tell Rifaʾat Matthers 1981, p. 339, fig. 206:9 EB IV
6: 14 Tell Shiyukh TahtaniTell Halawa A Selenkahiye Tell BanatTell Mastuma Sconzo 2007, p. 260, fig. 17.11:61 Hempelmann 2005, Taf. 40:316 Van Loon 2001, pl. 5A.15:f. Porter 2007, p. 19, pl. VI:18. Tsuneki 2009, p. 76, fig. 3.19:15 Late 3rd mill.EB IVLate, 2250-20002300-2150EB IVB
6: 15 Tell Halawa A Hempelmann 2005, Taf. 14:178 EB IV
6: 16 Tell Shiyukh TahtaniTell Halawa AHammam al-Turkman Sconzo 2007, p. 260, fig. 17.11:16 Hempelmann 2005, Taf. 14:184 Sconzo 2015, 183, pl. 23:2 Late 3rd mill.EB IVEME 5
6: 18 Tall Munbāqa Czichon & Werner 2008, Taf. 27:5170 EB IV
7: 2 Tall Munbāqa Czichon & Werner 2008, Taf. 36:5238 EB IV
7: 3 Tell MardikhTell Rifaʾat Matthiae 1993, p. 636, fig. 13:2 Matthers 1981, p. 339, fig. 206:14 EB IVBLower level EB IV
7: 6 Tell KadrichTell Rifaʾat Umm el-MarraTell Tuqan Matthers 1981, p. 343, fig. 208:33 Matthers 1981, p. 335, fig. 205:32 Schwartz et al. 2003, p. 340, fig.24:1 Peyronel 2011, p. 101, fig. 29:16 EB IVUpper level EB IVLate EB IVACentral–late EB IVB
7: 7 Umm el-MarraTell Rifaʾat Schwartz et al. 2000, p. 424, fig. 4:14 Matthers 1981, p. 339, fig. 206:15 EB IVBEB IV
7: 14 Tall MunbāqaTell Tuqan Czichon & Werner 2008, Taf. 45:5371 Askalone 2011, p. 53, fig. 45:16 EB IVEB IVB
8: 6 Umm el-Marra Schwartz et al. 2006, p. 621, fig. 21:6 Mid–late EB IVA
8: 16 Tell Halawa A Hempelmann 2005, Taf. 8:111 EB IV
8: 21 Tell Kadrich Matthers 1981, p. 343, fig. 208:21 EB IV
9: 7 Tell Rifaʾat Matthers 1981, p. 335, fig. 205:25 Upper level EB IV
9: 10 Tell Mardikh Sala 2012, p. 64, fig.10:7 Early EB IVB
9: 15 Tell TuqanTell Mardikh Peyronel 2008, p. 57, fig. 20:14 Baffi & Peyronel 2013, p. 204, fig. 9.3:4 Sala 2012, p. 66, fig. 11:28 EB IVBEB IVBEarly EB IVB
9: 16 Tell MardikhTell TayinatTell Mastuma Sala 2012, p. 66, fig. 11:2 Braidwood & Braidwood 1960, p. 443, fig. 342:5 Wakita 2009, p. 68, fig. 3.9:26 Early EB IVBPhase JEB IVA
10: 4 Umm el-Marra Tall Munbāqa Schwartz et al. 2003, p. 340, fig. 24:2 Czichon & Werner 2008, Taf. 20:5059 Late EB IVAEB IV
10: 5 Umm el-Marra Schwartz et al. 2000, p. 423, fig. 4:13 EB IV
10: 17 Tell Rifaʾat Matthers 1981, p. 339, fig. 206:12 Lower level EB IV
11: 3 Tell Mastuma Tsuneki 2009, p. 81, fig. 3.23:3 EB IV
11: 5 Tall MunbāqaTell Tayinat Czichon & Werner 2008, Taf. 42:5290 Welton 2014, p. 353, fig. 8:1 EB IVEB IVB
12: 17 Tell Tayinat Braidwood & Braidwood 1960, p. 448, fig. 346 (but Smeared Wash Ware) Amuq J
13, in general Tell AfisTell Mastuma Mazzoni 2002, p. 94, pl. XLIV:128, 129 Wakita 2009, p. 66, fig. 3.7:18 EB IVBEB IVB
13: 5 Umm el-Marra Schwartz et al. 2012, p. 164, fig. 9:2 EB IV
14: 3-5 Tell MardikhAnsari-AleppoTell Tuqan Sala 2012, fig. 11, 15 (painted decoration) Matthiae 1993, p. 635, fig. 12:1-4, 2009, p. 758, fig. 9 (painted decoration) Suleiman 1984, pl. II:9, 10 (painted decoration) Peyronel 2008, p. 57, fig. 20:2, 3, 5-7 Peyronel 2011, p. 101, fig. 29:1-4 (painted decoration) Baffi & Peyronel 2013, p. 204, fig. 9.3:1-3 (painted decoration) Early EB IVBEB IVBEB IVB2200-2000Central-late EB IVBEB IVB
14: 3 Tell TuqanTell Mardikh Ascalone 2011, p. 52, fig. 44:6 Matthiae 2007, p. 510, fig. 25, middle row, first from the right EB IVBEB IVB1
14: 4 Tell TayinatTell Mastuma Braidwood & Braidwood 1960, p. 445, fig. 344:13 Wakita 2009, p. 67, fig. 3.8:3 Phase J Early EB IVB
14: 5 Tell MardikhTell Mastuma Matthiae 2007, p. 510, fig. 26, middle row, first from the left Wakita 2009, p. 66, fig. 3.7:7 EB IVB2Early EB IVB
14: 6 Selenkahiye Van Loon 2001, pl. 5A.30d; Pl. 5B39B1 Late 2250-2000Early 2400-2250
15: 1, 2 Tell Tayinat Braidwood & Braidwood 1960, p. 434, fig. 334:23, 25 Amuq J
15: 7 Tell Shiyukh TahtaniAnsari-Aleppo Sconzo 2007, p. 260, fig. 17.11:47 Suleiman 1984, p. 69, pl. VII:65 Late 3rd mill.EB IV
15: 8 Tell Shiyukh Tahtani Sconzo 2007, p. 260, fig. 17.11:49 Late 3rd mill.
15: 9 Tell Shiyukh Tahtani Sconzo 2007, p. 260, fig. 17.11:57 Late 3rd mill.

Plates

Plate 1. Goblets

Plate 1. Goblets
1 488/75 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; intact vessel
2 488/7 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; intact vessel
3 488/76 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/4; intact vessel
4 309 40/2 Loc. 6 Surface: upper part 2,5Y 8/2, lower part 7,5YR7/2; core: brown
5 224 26/1 SW part of a trench Surface: 2,5Y8/2; core: greenish green
6 263 35/1 Loc. 6 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: brown
7 488/149 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5YR6/6; core: brick red-orange
8 434 9/6 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface:10YR7/2; core: beige
9 488/194 Loc. 12 Surface:10YR8/4; core: light brown
10 488/11 Loc. 12 Surface: upper part 2,5Y8/3, lower part 7,5YR7/4; core: beige-brick red

Plate 2. Goblets

Plate 2. Goblets
1 488/77 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7,5/3; intact vessel
2 261 27/13 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y7/2; core: greyish green
3 488/6 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; intact vessel
4 488/84 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; intact vessel
5 488/162 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: greyish green
6 488/193 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/3; core: light brown
7 344 5a/11 W part of trench Surface: 10YR8/4; core: light brown
8 261 27/28 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/4; core: light brown
9 293 42/2 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: light brown
10 488/195 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: green
11 344 5a/1 W part of trench Surface: 2,5Y7,5/3; core: beige
12 204 26/3 SW part of trench Surface: 10YR7/3; core: light brown

Plate 3. Small cups

Plate 3. Small cups
1 488/136+141 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/2,5; core: light brown
2 488/70 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/4; core: buff
3 488/94 Loc. 12 Surface: upper part 2,5YR8/3, lower part 2,5YR6/6; core: red-orange-red
4 488/93 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR6/6; core: brick red
5 488/62 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR 6/5; core: brick red
6 434 9/3 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5YR6/5; core: brick red
7 488/187 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/3; core: light brown
8 488/14 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/4; core: orange
9 333 1/1 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: upper part 7,5YR6,5/4, lower part 10YR7/3; core: brown
10 488/64 + 137 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR7/4; core: pinkish
11 488/142 Loc. 12 Surface: upper part: 2,5Y8/2, lower part 10YR7/4; core: light brown
12 434 9/29 + 9/28 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR8/3, 7,5YR7/4; core: beige
13 434 9/30 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y6/1; core: brownish grey
14 223 25/7 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR8/2; core: greyish brown
15 488/5 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7,5/3; core: buff
16 434 9/33 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: beige
17 488/9 Loc. 12 Surface: upper part 10YR7/4, 2,5Y8/3, lower part: 10YR7/3; core: light brown
18 488/140 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: beige
19 352 8/2 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: brown
20 488/190 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: green
21 344 5a/14 W part of trench Surface: 7,5YR7/3; core: brown
22 488/9 + 138 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/3; core: light brown
23 488/139 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: beige with lighter outer layers
24 299 45/9 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/2; core: grey

1 488/66 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5YR6/; core: red-buff
2 434 9/22 + 9/24 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y7/2, lower part 10YR6/3; core: dark brown-dark grey-dark brown
3 434 9/10 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5YR7/6; core: buff
4 488/92 Loc. 12 Surface: rim outside 2,5Y8/3, lower part 2,5YR6/6; core: red-brown-red
5 488/55 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/2; core: brick red with slightly lighter inner layer
6 434 9/14 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y7/1; core: pale greyish green
7 488/73 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: greyish green
8 488/27 + 95 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR7/6; core: buff-darker buff-buff
9 434 9/13 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR5/1; core: dark red-dark grey
10 488/68 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/3; core: buff-light grey-buff
11 261 27/19 Above loc. 12 Surface: 2,5YR6/6, rim:10YR8/3; core: reddish brown-beige
12 224 26/4 SW part of trench Surface: 10YR8/2; core: greyish olive with lighter edges
13 434 9/8 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: brick red
14 229 28/22 Loc. 6 Surface: upper part 10YR8/3, lower part 10R5/4; core colour not recorded
15 467 23/3 Stone rubble in the entrance to Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: light brown-light greyish brown-light brown
16 488/103 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR6/4; core: dark brown-brown-dark brown

Plate 6. Thin walled jars and pots

Plate 6. Thin walled jars and pots
1 488/26 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5YR6/6; core: red-buff-red
2 488/107 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: green
3 488/28 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: brown
4 434 9/34 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR8/3; core: beige
5 434 9/11 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5YR7/4; core: brick red-light brown-brick red
6 488/146 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: brick red
7 488/47 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR5,5/4; core: dark reddish brown-pinkish-dark reddish brown
8 261 27/24 + 239 32/4 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/2; core: yellowish green
9 488/50 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y7/3; core: brown
10 488/54 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/4; core: red-grey
11 261 27/17 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/3; core: beige
12 488/101 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5YR6/6; core: reddish brown
13 488/120 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/4; core: light brown
14 488/122 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: dark grey-pinkish brown
15 488/125 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: yellowish green
16 488/84 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR7/6; core: orange-bluish grey
17 263 35/3 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR8/2; core: brown
18 488/25 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core color not registered

Plate 7. Thin walled jars and pots

Plate 7. Thin walled jars and pots
1 488/156 Loc. 12 Body sherd 0.5-0.8 cm thick; surface: 10YR6/3; core: dark red; potter’s mark on the jar’s shoulder
2 434 9/45 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: green-pink-green; potter’s mark
3 488/197 + 131 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/2,5; core: pinkish grey
4 434 9/35 Corridor to Loc. 6 Body sherd 1 cm thick; surface: 5YR6/4; core: dark red; potter’s mark on the jar’s shoulder
5 488/60 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y7/2,5; core: brown
6 488/134+434 9/26 Loc. 12 + Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: dark red
7 488/132 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: light brown
8 488/42 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR7/4–2,5YR6/5; core: reddish brown-dark grey-reddish brown
9 488/133 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: light brown
10 434 9/21 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: greenish-greyish green-brown
11 488/58 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y7/3; core: brown
12 263 35/2 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/3; core color not registered
13 229 28/14 + 223 25/20 Loc. 6 Surface: 7,5YR7/4; core: reddish brown-olive
14 488/98 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: greyish brown, Potter’s mark
15 488/87 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/3; core: greenish yellow-greenish grey
16 488/185 Loc. 12 Body sherd with handle; surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: brick red
17 488/81 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR7/6; core: reddish brown

Plate 8. Ring bases

Plate 8. Ring bases
1 557 30/3 NE part of the trench, outside Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: light grey
2 488/41 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5YR6/6; core: dark red-light brown-dark red
3 344 5a/3 W part of trench Surface: 10YR7/3; core: brownish beige
4 434 9/57 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y7/3; core: light green-light brown-light green
5 223 25/2 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/2; core: brown-red-brown
6 434 9/46 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: dark grey
7 488/23 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: dark beige
8 229 28/8 Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y7/2; core: pink-grey
9 293 42/5 Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y7,5/2; core: buff-pink-buff
10 488/20 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR7,5/4; core: brown-grey-brown
11 263 35/7 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR8/4; core: beige
12 488/152 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/4; core: brown-dark red
13 488/151 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR7/4; core: pink with thin light brown edges
14 488/21 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR6/4; core: brown-grey-brown
15 488/191 Loc. 12 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: greyish green
16 434 9/4 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: upper part 5Y8/2, lower part 10YR7/3; core: beige
17 434 9/53 + 9/61 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: upper part 5Y8/2, lower part 10YR7/3; core: brown
18 434 9/58 + 9/54 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5YR7/4; core: brick red-brown
19 434 9/56 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/2,5; core: grey
20 434 9/65 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y7,5/3; core: yellowish green-green; overfired
21 223 25/19 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/2; core: brown
22 434 9/55 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: beige-brick red or (in the thinner part) beige

Plate 9. Bowls, bases, sieves

Plate 9. Bowls, bases, sieves
1 491 21/1 N part of the trench Surface: 5Y8/3; core: yellowish grey
2 344 5a/8 W part of a trench Surface: 5YR6/4; core: reddish brown-thin reddish grey-reddish brown
3 261 27/18 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/3; core: olive
4 284 41/1 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR6/2; core: reddish brown
5 488/114 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: buff-light brown
6 261 27/15 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/2; core: beige-grey-beige
7 474 7/4 Dismantling walls of Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: greyish green; overfired
8 261 27/20 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/2; core: greyish green
9 488/91 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/4; core: buff
10 488/100 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: buff
11 488/82 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR7/4; core: brown-beige-grey-beige
12 434 9/47 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y6/1; core: dark grey
13 488/155 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR6/4; core: dark pink-grey-orange
14 488/172 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: pinkish grey
15 309 40/8 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR8/3; core: beige; string cut
16 261 27/21 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7,5/2; core: brown; string cut
17 488/71 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR7/4; core: reddish brown-buff-reddish brown
18 488/56 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR6,5/4; core: reddish brown

Plate 10. Potter’s marks, pots, storage jars

Plate 10. Potter’s marks, pots, storage jars
1 488/193 Loc. 12 Body sherd 0.6 cm thick; surface: 10YR7/3; core: beige with thin orange outer layers; potter’s mark on the jar’s shoulder
2 434 9/78 Corridor to Loc. 6 Body sherd 0.5 cm thick; surface: 10YR7/3; core: brown-greyish brown-brown; potter’s mark, on the jar’s shoulder (?)
3 434 9/64 Corridor to Loc. 6 Body sherd 0.9 cm thick; surface: 5Y8/2; core: light green-greyish green; potter’s mark on the jar’s shoulder
4 488/119 Loc. 12 Surface: 2.5Y8/3; core: light brown
5 488/104 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: brick red-dark grey-brick red
6 434 9/15 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: yellow-light green
7 488/111 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/3; core: beige
8 263 35/4 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: grey with thin brick red outer layers
9 438 16/1 Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: pinkish
10 424 11/3 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: buff-greyish yellow-buff
11 299 45/3 Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y8/2; core colour not recorded
12 434 9/41 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5YR7/4; core: beige with thin red outer layers
13 434 9/42 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y8/2; core: greyish yellow with yellowish outer layers
14 488/51 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR6/4; core: brown-grey-brown, lower part: brown-grey
15 467 23/1 Rubble in the entrance to Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: yellowish-beige-yellowish
16 299 45/4 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR8/2; core: dark brown
17 434 9/36 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y7,5/2; core: brown-grey-brown
18 434 15/1 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR8/3; core: brown-light grey-brown
19 434 9/27 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5Y8/3; core: light olive

Plate 11. Kitchen Ware pots

Plate 11. Kitchen Ware pots
1 488/180 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/2; lower part blackened with smoke; core: reddish brown-grey-reddish brown; traces of wheel smoothing– upper part inside and outside
2 488/200 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4, blackened with smoke; core: greyish brown-grey-reddish brown Burnished outside, lower part roughened
3 488/166 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR7/4; lower half blackened with smoke and overheated; core: grey with thin reddish brown outer layers; traces of burnishing outside
4 488/23 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/3, lower part blackened with smoke; core: reddish brown-grey-reddish brown
5 488/201 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: reddish brown-grey; rim burnished inside, lower outer surface roughened, overheated
6 488/182 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/3, 10YR6/4, lower part blackened with smoke; core: dark brown-grey-dark brown; traces of wheel smoothing upper part inside; roughened outside
7 261 27/48 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/2; core: brown, bottom: brown-grey-brown; burnished both sides
8 488/168 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/4; core: brown; fine traces of wheel smoothing inside
9 488/167 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4, lower part blackened with smoke; core: dark grey-thin reddish brown; burnished outside

Plate 12. Kitchen Ware pots and bowls

Plate 12. Kitchen Ware pots and bowls
1 488/186 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR5/3, blackened with smoke; core: dark brown. Burnished outside
2 488/199 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: light brown-dark grey-reddish brown; traces of wheel smoothing upper part inside, lower part roughened
3 488/163 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: reddish brown-grey-reddish brow
4 488/165 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6,5/4; core: reddish brown
5 434 9/19 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y5/1; core: reddish-brown
6 488/174 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4, lower part blackened with smoke; core: brown
7 488/213 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/3; core: reddish brown-dark grey-reddish brown; traces of wheel smoothing
8 488/177 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y4/1; core: dark grey-greyish brown
9 488/171 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: brown
10 488/175 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: reddish brown-greyish brown-reddish brown
11 263 35/14 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR6/3; core: brown-grey Traces of wheel smoothing
12 434 9/18 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 5YR6/6; core: reddish brown Traces of wheel smoothing
13 263 35/11, 35/33 Loc. 6 Surface: 7,5YR5/3; core: reddish brown
14 434 9/20 Corridor to Loc. 6 Surface: 7,5YR5/3; core: reddish brown
15 662/1 NE part of the trench Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: dark grey-dark beige
16 488/173 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/3; core: reddish brown-dark brown-dark grey
17 293 42/11 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR5/1; core: grey-dark grey-grey; traces of wheel smoothing?
18 488/178 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR7/3; core: reddish brown with dark grey core
19 293 42/12 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR6/2; core: brown; traces of wheel smoothing?
20 352 8/1 Loc. 12, upper part Surface: 10YR6/1; core: brown-dark grey-brown
21 299 45/1 + 261 27/9 Loc. 6 Above Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR5/1,5; core: light brown with dark grey core; outer surface uneven.
22 488/170 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/3; core: brown-dark brown-brown
23 488/163a Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/3; core: greyish brown-brown
24 299 45/13 Loc. 6 Surface: 2,5Y5/1; core: dark grey-brownish grey-dark grey; burnished

Plate 13. Kitchen Ware large bowls

Plate 13. Kitchen Ware large bowls
1 488/203 Loc. 12 Body sherd with horizontal handle; surface: 10YR7/3; core: dark brown-reddish brown-greyish brown
2 488/210 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: reddish brown with thin dark grey outer layers; wheel marks in upper part on both sides, lower part roughened outside, overheated
3 488/202 Loc. 12 Body sherd with horizontal handle; surface: 10YR6/2, 10YR4,5/1, blackened with smoke; core: dark grey (overheated)-brown
4 488/208 + 209 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR 6,5/3; core: dark brown-reddish brown-grey-reddish brown; traces of wheel smoothing in upper part, lower part roughened outside
5 488/201a Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/3; core: reddish brown-grey-reddish brown; overheated, lower part roughened outside
6 488/207 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/3, core: reddish brown-greyish brown-reddish brown, dark brown outer layer; traces of wheel smoothing on rim on both sides
7 488/222 Loc. 12 Blackened with smoke; core: reddish brown with thin dark grey outer layers
8 488/206 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/3, core: dark brown-greyish brown-reddish brown; traces of wheel smoothing (rim), lower part roughened outside
9 488/218 +217 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/2, core: dark brown-brown; traces of wheel smoothing on upper inside
10 488/204 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR3/1, core: dark grey (overheated)-dark brown-brown, lower part roughened outside; horizontal handle, damaged
11 488/205 Loc. 12
12 488/215 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/; core: reddish brown-greyish brown-reddish brown; traces of wheel smoothing in upper part
13 488/220 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR6/3; core: dark brown-reddish brown-greyish brown-reddish brown; traces of wheel smoothing on upper inside

Plate 14. Decorated sherds

Plate 14. Decorated sherds
1 229 28/1 Loc. 6 Surface: 10YR7/2,5; core: brown-grey-brown; incised
2 189/20 Roof of a layer Surface: 10YR7/3; core: reddish brown-grey-reddish brown; incised
3 261/2 Above Loc. 12 Painted dark red with thin incised waves; other details not available
4 488/67 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: yellowish; painted black 10YR3/1
5 488/61 Loc. 12 Surface: 10YR8/3; painted black 10YR4/1; core: beige; fine combed grooves
6 488/183 Loc. 12 Surface: 7,5YR6/4; core: reddish brown with grey core; close to the bottom: reddish brown; kitchen Ware, incised; base wheel-made, upper part hand-made; on the upper right edge fragment of the original opening preserved

Plate 15. Decorated and burnished sherds

Plate 15. Decorated and burnished sherds
1 488/65 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y8/3; core: brick red-olive-brick red; impressed/incised decoration
2 434 9/44 Loc. 6 Surface: 5YR7/4; core: brown-dark grey-brown; kitchen Ware; impressed decoration
3 488/79+80 Loc. 12 Surface: 5YR7/4; core: reddish brown; kitchen Ware; impressed decoration
4 488/33 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5YR6/6; core: reddish brown; red burnished both sides
5 344 5a/5 W part of trench Surface: 5YR6/6; core: light pink-light grey-light pink; red burnished (upper inside and outside); approximate position
6 491 21/5 N part of trench Surface: 5YR6/6; core: dark red-brown-light red; brown burnished (rim inside and outside); approximate position
7 488/38 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y6/1; core: grey; burnished horizontal bands
8 488/39 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y/4/1; core: brown-grey; burnished horizontal bands
9 488/109 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y5,5/1; core: dark grey; burnished horizontal bands
10 488/16 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y6/2; core: dark grey-thin brown-beige; traces of burnishing, also on the bottom.
11 488/160 Loc. 12 Surface: 2,5Y6/6; core: thin red-dark grey-thin light brown; burnished
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Notes

1 Preliminary reports on the field activities can be found in consecutive volumes of Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean (PAM), beginning with vol. XI (2000). The results of 1999–2007 excavation seasons of Protoneolithic and early Pre-Pottery Neolithic layers were summed up in Mazurowski & Kanjou 2012.

2 Mazurowski 2000, p. 286 f.

3 Mazurowski & Yartah 2002, p. 301. The wall of Locus 6 in best preserved area was first spotted ca 1.4 m below the surface of the trench; Locus 12 was dug from the level corresponding to the entrance to Locus 6, ca 2.2 m below the surface.

4 Known also as “Hama beakers/goblets”, “Corrugated Ware”, or “Simple Ware” (Welton & Cooper 2014, p. 325). The term “Caliciform Ware” is presently considered inappropriate and has been dismissed (Welton & Cooper 2014, p. 325; Mazzoni 2002, p. 75).

5 According to Welton & Cooper 2014, p. 328, it is still unknown if the goblets were first made by hand-coiling before being shaped on the wheel or wheel-thrown in their entity from a lump of clay.

6 Sala 2012, p. 65-72.

7 Cf. Welton & Cooper 2014, p. 332, pl. 4: 1, 2.

8 Cf. Sconzo 2007, p. 262.

9 Matthers 1981, p. 343, fig. 208: 3-14, 36.

10 Mazzoni 2002, p. 79 and 94, pl. XLIV: 122, 123.

11 Fugmann 1958, p. 80, fig. 103: 3C 89.

12 Braidwood & Braidwood 1960, p. 434, fig. 334: 8, 10. Good parallel is provided by Van Loon 2001, fig. 5A.30d (coarse ware, fenestrated, same incised decoration).

13 Akin to Van Loon 2001, pl. 5A.22c (Simple Ware).

14 Braidwood & Braidwood 1960, p. 432 and 434, fig. 334: 22-25; cf. also e.g. Fugmann 1958, p. 77, fig. 98: 3C 470; Sconzo 2015, p. 109, 191: 1-3; Wakita 2009, p. 64; Welton 2014, p. 352.

15 Falb, Porter & Pruß 2014, p. 185, 192-195.

16 E.g. Matthers 1981, fig. 205: 13-16, 29, fig. 206: 4-8, fig. 208: 34-36.

17 Welton & Cooper 2014, p. 328.

18 Mazzoni 2002, p. 79; Welton 2014, p. 359.

19 Mazzoni 2002, p. 79; Fugmann 1958, fig. 74: 3H112, 3G696.

20 Matthiae 1993, p. 634; Sala 2012, p. 76 f.

21 Amuq J, Welton 2011, p. 23; Welton 2014, p. 347 f.

22 Welton & Cooper 2014, p. 332; Welton 2014, p. 346, 355 f.

23 Sconzo 2007, p. 259, 260: 14-16.

24 Sconzo 2015, p. 108, pl. 23; Porter 2007, p. 8 (Banat Period II, 2300-2150 bc).

25 Pl. 6: 14, cf. Mazzoni 2002, p. 79; Porter 2007, p. 8, pl. VI: 18-21.

26 Mazzoni 2002, p. 79, 94, pl. XLIV: 128, 129 (Tell Afis); Sala 2012, p. 72 f., 77 (Tell Mardikh); Schwartz et al. 2012, p. 163 (Umm el-Marra); Sconzo 2015, p. 109, pl. 26: 6 (Emar). For Tell Mastuma cf. Appendix.

27 Sconzo 2014, p. 219 f.

28 Sconzo 2014, p. 217, fig. 3 (distribution map), p. 223 f. (chronology), xi (chronological table); Rova 2011, p. 63 (Table 6b: 096), 76.

29 Welton & Cooper 2014.

30 Mazzoni 2002, p. 70 f.; on the existence in EB IVB of a ceramic horizon extending over the whole northwestern inner Syria, from the Hama region and Orontes valley to Amuq plain and Munbatah and Selenkahiye cf. Ascalone & D’Andrea 2013, p. 225 f.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1.
Légende Map of northwestern Syria showing location of the sites mentioned in the text
Crédits © D. Ławecka
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 623k
Titre Figure 2.
Légende Tell Qaramel, plan of the site showing excavated areas (1999-2007, after Mazurowski 2010, p. 566, fig. 1)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 849k
Titre Figure 3.
Légende Tell Qaramel, trench K5. Remains of EB IV structures (after Mazurowski & Yartah 2002, p. 302, fig. 8)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 816k
Titre Plate 1. Goblets
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 904k
Titre Plate 2. Goblets
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 874k
Titre Plate 3. Small cups
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 941k
Titre Plate 4. Bowls
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 863k
Titre Plate 5. Bowls
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 906k
Titre Plate 6. Thin walled jars and pots
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 867k
Titre Plate 7. Thin walled jars and pots
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1006k
Titre Plate 8. Ring bases
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 938k
Titre Plate 9. Bowls, bases, sieves
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 937k
Titre Plate 10. Potter’s marks, pots, storage jars
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 790k
Titre Plate 11. Kitchen Ware pots
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 832k
Titre Plate 12. Kitchen Ware pots and bowls
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 981k
Titre Plate 13. Kitchen Ware large bowls
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Plate 14. Decorated sherds
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 943k
Titre Plate 15. Decorated and burnished sherds
URL http://journals.openedition.org/syria/docannexe/image/4566/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,3M
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Dorota Ławecka, « EB IVB pottery from Tell Qaramel (western Syria) »Syria, 93 | 2016, 201-234.

Référence électronique

Dorota Ławecka, « EB IVB pottery from Tell Qaramel (western Syria) »Syria [En ligne], 93 | 2016, mis en ligne le 01 novembre 2018, consulté le 17 octobre 2021. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/syria/4566 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/syria.4566

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Auteur

Dorota Ławecka

Institute of Archaeology, University of Warsaw

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