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Nancy Holt / Inside Outside, July 13, 2023-January 7, 2024, Museum of Contemporary Art, Barcelona (MACBA)

Curators: Lisa Le Feuvre (executive director of the Holt/Smithson Foundation), Teresa Grandas (curator of exhibitions at the MACBA) and Katarina Pierre (director of the Bildmuseet, Umeå University)
Monica Manolescu

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1The Nancy Holt exhibition entitled Inside Outside, and curated by the Museum of Contemporary Art in Barcelona, in the spacious white building designed by Richard Meier, is the largest European survey of the artist’s work, presenting a variety of projects made between 1966 and 1992. The exhibition traveled to Barcelona from the Bildmuseet in Umeå, Sweden, where it was on show for over a year (17 January 2022-29 January 2023). Its guiding principle is the dialectic between the inside and the outside in Holt’s work, which includes the relationship between her work and the institutional canon. As a pioneering Land artist, Holt explored the articulation of location and perception, as well as site-specificity outside museums and galleries, while also maintaining close links with the latter. Her position within the canon of Land art is that of an insider/outsider, not fully and consistently central, but not marginal either. Her monumental Sun Tunnels (1973-1976), built in a remote location in Utah, is one of the most iconic works of Land art, but the vast corpus of her multimedia works produced over five decades (1966-2014) has not received as much attention. The gendered aspects of her insider/outsider position and of the canon formation of Land art are analyzed in the exhibition catalogues of the Bildmuseet and the MACBA exhibitions (the first one in English, the second one in Spanish). Research on American Land artists has focused extensively on Robert Smithson (1938-1973), Michael Heizer (born 1944), Dennis Oppenheim (1938-2011), Robert Morris (1931-2018) and, to a lesser degree, Walter De Maria (1935-2013) (Nisbet 87). The MACBA seeks to shift the focus on Nancy Holt, which it does successfully, while also highlighting the collaborative network that characterizes her art. The practice of Earthworks, at the end of the 1960s and early 1970s, was shaped by a constellation of artists who used inorganic materials (earth, sand, dirt and rocks), who shared a kinship with minimalism and conceptualism, who were interested in site-specificity, who emphasized the dialectic between the site and its representations or prolongations, who questioned art institutions but collaborated with them, who resisted commodification, but worked closely with patrons and remained actively involved in the economic system of art-making (Boettger). While the term “Earthworks” was used for a specific group of American artists at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s, “Land art” has become a wider and more common term (Kaiser and Kwon 17). The predominantly masculine outlook of the canon of Land art has recently come under scrutiny, leading to various curatorial reassessments, one of which is offered by the Nancy Holt exhibition at the MACBA. Currently, an exhibition at the Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas, Texas, showcases the work of twelve women artists of Land art, including Holt: Groundswell. Women of Land Art (September 2023-January 2024). Among the previous exhibitions of Nancy Holt’s work, two in particular are worth mentioning: Sightlines, at the Wallach Art Gallery in New York City in 2010, which toured in the United States and in Germany, and led to the publication of the first catalogue on Holt edited by Alena Williams, and Light and Language, at Lismore Castle, Ireland, curated by Lisa Le Feuvre, in 2021, which also included works by contemporary artists inspired by Holt’s legacy.

2Born in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1938, Nancy Holt grew up in New Jersey and studied biology at Tufts University. She moved to New York, started writing poetry, worked as assistant literary editor at Harper’s Bazaar, and made her own artwork using photography, sound and video. Travel and fieldwork became important methods, with various trips that marked her as a young artist: to the American West (in 1968 for the first time), to prehistoric sites and landscape gardens in England and Wales (1969), and to archeological sites in Mexico (1969). Over the years, her work became more diverse in form and more explicitly ecological. She made monumental sculptures such as Sun Tunnels, installations, public works in urban areas, reclamation projects, in addition to texts and films produced in relation to specific works. In 1995, she moved to Galisteo, New Mexico. After Smithson’s untimely death in 1973, she shepherded his artistic legacy while continuing to develop her own work. She died in 2014, at the age of 75.

3The exhibition starts with a few audio and photographic works, some of which document performative visits or tours. Two photographic series made in England (Trail Markers and Wistman’s Wood, both dating from 1969) explore the landscape and the human traces it carries (orange dots marking the trails to follow), which should be understood in the context of Holt’s interest in European landscapes, their layered history and geology, and the theories of the English picturesque, with their emphasis on a close engagement with the natural environment, calling the artist to become an agent and not simply an observer of nature. The question of Land art’s international networks and genealogies is thus addressed from the outset, highlighting the transatlantic circulation of ideas that inspired Holt.

Fig. 1. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Trail Markers, 1969.

Fig. 1. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Trail Markers, 1969.

Photographie: Miquel Coll, MACBA, 2023.

4The “tours” that Holt developed in American contexts have performative and auditory components: Stone Ruin Tour (1967, in Little Falls, Cedar Grove, New Jersey) and Tour of the John Weber Gallery (1972, in SoHo). Stone Ruin Tour is based on a two-page typed score that Holt used for an audio recording of herself giving directions for the visit, and a PowerPoint projection that she put together in 2012, of photographs originally taken during the 1967 visit of a dilapidated house with artist friends. Set in the wastelands of New Jersey, this tour explored marginal places marked by erosion and decay (natural, architectural or postindustrial) and consecrated the tour as method of investigation, very much like Smithson in his photo-essay The Monuments of Passaic (1967).

5The Tour of the John Weber Gallery survives as an audio recording for visiting an exhibition in the gallery based on several typed pages, in which Holt describes very minutely the art objects in the gallery, but also elements of the gallery itself (cracks in the floor, colors), what can be seen out of the window, in a flat tone, giving no precedence to the artwork, which is granted as much descriptive importance as the pipes in the room or the cars outside. The primary medium of these two works is language, spoken, written and recorded in an utterly impersonal, flat way. This impersonality is central to Smithson’s work as well, and is a legacy of modernist impersonality, but Holt moved away from it, as becomes clear in the piece entitled Ransacked (published by Printed Matter in 1980), which narrates, in text and photographs, the story of the final days of Nancy Holt’s aunt, Ethel, abused by her housekeeper. Told “in her own words” and illustrated by photographs of Aunt Ethel’s house in New Bedford, the story captures the tension between a seemingly reserved narrative manner and the gruesome details conveyed. This “human interest” story that portrays a member of Holt’s own family is quite remarkable in Holt’s corpus, otherwise devoid of pathos and free of any display of affect.

6The two photographic series Down Hill and Over the Hill (1968), representing artist Joan Jonas climbing up and down a sand dune, is one of a few works by Holt that lends itself explicitly to a feminist angle of interpretation. The question of Holt’s feminism is a complex one, given the fact that it is easier to contextualize her work within feminism in the United States and to read it along the work of other women artists of the 1960s onwards than to identify explicit feminist elements in the works themselves. Joan Jonas, who also appears in other works of the exhibition (notably in the video East Coast/West Coast, 1969), is presented in sequential movement, leaving traces in the sand as she climbs up and down a sand dune. Passing through a landscape of sand begs to be interpreted as a parable in which Jonas’s ephemeral traces will be easily erased, very much like the traces left by women artists in the canon of the 1960s and 1970s.

7New Jersey looms large in the exhibition thanks to the photographs of Stone Ruin Tour, and also Pine Barrens and Footprints (1975), and so does New York thanks to a variety of projects, notably Points of View (1974). The latter introduces the combined questions of location and perspective that dominate Holt’s later work and that will cohere in her “locators.” Points of View plays on the narrative and perceptive meanings of the phrase, conjoining speaking and seeing. Four pairs of interlocutors and observers anchor themselves in place and discuss the content of their vision in private conversations, through questions and answers, by examining fragments of a larger New York cityscape. Verbal exchange between conversational partners becomes a method of investigation applied to a field of vision which is intentionally reduced to multiplying and shifting fragments.

8Holt’s interest in language and linguistic expression, primordial in her art, is further explored in a whole room devoted to her poetry and poetic projects. Like many artists of her generation, Holt’s artistic practice involved poetic expression in the form of concrete poems and photographs capturing the linguistic signs that permeate everyday life. Holt’s poetry is anchored in place and also on the page. It plays with geometric figures (circles, squares) and place names, it meanders on the page and echoes the shapes and functions of her later “locators.” Detach Here (1967) engages the reader’s potential capacity to act upon the material support of the text and to affect its integrity. It resembles a coupon or a piece in a missing geometry problem, but these are only interpretations of a mere piece of paper that stands on its own and that one may carry in a wallet, in a pocket or in an envelope, offering a potential discount, containing useful information, signifying as a geometrical figure that accompanies no problem. The blank square escapes any overarching commercial narrative, mathematical exercise or other usage, defying the very notion of pragmatic purpose or intellectual demonstration. Open to projection thanks to its emptiness, the detached square emerges out of the reader’s act of “detaching here,” along the contours of a shape, whose mere tracing allows it to exist.

9Hometown (1969) plays with the translation of maps into typed place names. Paterson, Rutherford, Bloomfield, Clifton, Passaic, Montclair and other New Jersey toponyms are laid out on the page in a configuration that mirrors their geographical position. The resulting verbal map has implicit personal meaning: Holt lived in Bloomfield and Clifton as a child, and Passaic looms large in Smithson’s explorations of marginal sites. Places do not cohere as itineraries and do not give rise to narratives. Rather, they exist as landmarks on the page, potential stepping stones for a condensed cartography of home.

10This condensation makes room for a progressive reduction in Untitled (Disconsolate) (1970), which presents itself as an inverted triangle made of letters, starting from the word “DISCONSOLATE” and its mirror image, “ETALOSNCOSID,” and descending into shorter words from a similarly bleak lexical field of psychological distress (“DESPONDENCY,” “DEPRESSED,” “DESPAIR,” “DULL”) to end in an anticlimactic “D” mirrored by itself (“D D”). Robert Smithson’s Heap of Language (1966) comes to mind, which presents a triangle of handwritten words referring to language and its many instantiations (“phraseology,” “alphabet,” “cypher” etc.), suggesting the materiality of language forming a layered heap.

11In The World Through a Circle (1970), Holt configures a circular series of typed words: “EARTH, SKY, WATER, MOON, SUN, STAR.” A poem unfolds under this verbal structure:

The world through a circle

Elements real and reflected

Concentrated, encompassed

The sky brought down

A hole through the earth, either way

Drawing in a glance

And then a second look

And more.

The world focuses

And spins out again, seen.

12Expanding the terrestrial and local geography of Hometown, The World Through a Circle connects the microcosm and the macrocosm, including celestial elements in a larger picture. The poem reads like a linguistic version of a “locator” and expresses Holt’s interest in the cosmos and cosmology.

13The only work (to my knowledge) that makes explicit reference to Holt’s feminism in her entire corpus is Making Waves (1972), which presents a graph showing her postures as a “feminist, artist and mystic.” The contours and oscillations of the three do not coincide, suggesting three identities that share a common space on the page, but do not unfold with the same intensity within the same temporal unit. This self-description and scrutiny of her own persona is implicitly underscored by discourses, features and sets of expectations that are attached to each.

14A final example from Holt’s poetic output I will discuss, Ten Billion Barrels of Crude Oil (1986) openly addresses the question of the encroachment of the oil industry onto the environment in the context of the Trans-Alaskan pipeline. Holt’s meandering drawing and handwriting on paper show the complex entanglement of local geography and the cartography of oil transportation. The site is exclusively determined by industry and by extracted resources carried across the land. This visual poem needs to be read alongside Holt’s installation Pipeline, made in 1986 for the Visual Art Center in Anchorage, which is not present in the exhibition, and which considers the environmental damage produced by the pipeline, materialized by an oil leak. Holt’s essay “Ecological Aspects of My Work” (1993), included in the Bildmuseet and the MACBA catalogues, offers a personal statement on Holt’s practice in relation to ecology.

15A whole room is devoted to Holt’s installation Holes of Light (1973), in which round shapes cut in a wall set in the middle of the room throw shadows on the opposing wall, with electric bulbs being turned on and off in alternation on one side and then the other. The installation articulates the fixity of the unmoving wall, with its cutout circles and the dynamic play of cast reflections on opposing walls. The installation is a gallery echo of Holt’s most famous work, Sun Tunnels, also characterized by circular shapes, and by the perception of changing reflections dependent on evolving light sources, inscribed in a process of temporal perception. Similarly, Mirrors of Light (1974) uses a spotlight that illuminates a row of ten mirrors disposed diagonally, as well as their shadows.

Fig. 2. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Mirrors of Light, 1974.

Fig. 2. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Mirrors of Light, 1974.

Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.

Fig. 3. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Mirrors of Light, 1974.

Fig. 3. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Mirrors of Light, 1974.

Photographie: Miquel Coll, MACBA, 2023.

16Holt’s fascination with the American West started in 1968, when she first traveled there with Robert Smithson and Michael Heizer. Her sense of wonder at its immensity energized her art and drew her to remote locations, notably in the case of Sun Tunnels (1976). The MACBA exhibition opens with an eloquent quote in which Holt celebrates the transformative power of her encounter with the American West: “The space, and the sky, and the sun just knocked me out… It was a very special experience where I felt that my inside and the outside were identical, somehow. I had been carrying this landscape within me, and suddenly there it was, without. When I came back to New York I was never the same person again.”

17The sixty photographs of Western Graveyards (1968) are exhibited alongside later photographic works made in Alaska, Athabascan/Russian Orthodox Graveyards and Alaskan Pines (1986). The Alaska photographs are exhibited here for the first time. Set almost twenty years apart, the Western and Alaskan graveyards encode an interest not only in the human transformation of the landscape, but also in the finitude of human life, inscribed and confined in vast natural spaces. The graveyards themselves and the gridded configuration of the photographs adopt the shapes and seriality of Minimalism (Williams 21). Arguably less interested in entropy than Smithson, Holt reflects on temporality in relation to space, articulating the scale of human life, the history of Western settlement and the vast temporal framework of geology.

18Sun Tunnels (started in 1973 and completed in 1976) in the Great Basin Desert of Utah is present in the exhibition through several of its iterations: Richard Misrach’s large-format color photographs, the film Sun Tunnels that documents the making of the work, Holt’s preparatory drawings, figures and photographs, which are testimony to her minute and finely calibrated preliminary research. I have never had the chance to visit Sun Tunnels in Utah, but the exhibition gives a sense of their monumentality, of the changing quality of the light, of the importance of observing the site over time, and of the material challenges posed by their making and installation, far from human communities. How to present (or whether it is possible to present) monumental Land art works made in remote places inside the museum is a key question that all Land art exhibitions grapple with. The exhibition catalogue of Ends of the Earth. Land Art to 1974 (2012) starts by addressing this important question (Kaiser and Kwon 17) and by formulating an answer that rejects the cliché of an opposition between Land art and the museum, insisting on their complex negotiations, and on the fact that the objective of the exhibition was more far-reaching, seeking to rewrite the narrative of Land art as a purely American sculptural phenomenon, asserting the existence of a synchronous international network with diverse sites, beyond the American desert. Similarly, in the MACBA exhibition, the question of how to present Sun Tunnels to museum audiences is secondary to the emphasis on canon-formation and on the multifarious body of work produced by Holt over the years.

Fig. 4. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Sun Tunnels, 1976.

Fig. 4. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Sun Tunnels, 1976.

Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.

19In Sun Tunnels, Holt’s understanding of the site in terms of the articulation of earth and sky, which form a system that includes the viewer, is suggested by the holes of varying sizes bore in the tunnels, which reproduce the patterns of four constellations (Draco, Perseus, Columba and Capricorn), and also by the position of the tunnels, aligned with the rising and setting sun at the summer and winter solstices. Sun Tunnels was paid by Holt partly from grants, partly from her pocket, which illustrates the gendered disparities in artistic funding within Land art (Boettger 148; Swenson 36-37). With Sun Tunnels, Holt extended herself into the world through delegated labor, since she directed a large team of workers with various kinds of expertise (Wagner).

Fig. 5. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Sun Tunnels, 1976.

Fig. 5. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Sun Tunnels, 1976.

Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.

20Several series of “locators” create systems of perception that connect the viewers to the site and become aware of the perception process. Locators with Light (1972), Dual locators (1972), and Views Through a Sand Dune (1972) allow one to experience site-specific perception and to connect with the site through the intermediary of a simple optical device that resembles a combined periscope, telescope and camera (Tiberghien 203).

Fig. 6. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside.

Fig. 6. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside.

Photographie : Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.

Fig. 7. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside.

Fig. 7. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside.

Photographie : Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.

21In the last room, the visitors can sit, watch and listen to several video works made by Holt in collaboration with others: East Coast/West Coast (1969, with Robert Smithson and Joan Jonas), Zeroing In (1973, with Ted Castle), Going Around in Circles (1973), Revolve (1977, with Dennis Wheeler). They illustrate questions of collaborative authorship and highlight the discursive and dialogic features of Holt’s work.

22Two of Holt’s “system works” are recreated at the MACBA: Ventilation System (originally made in 1981) and Electrical Lighting for Reading Room (1985). The “system works,” according to Holt, are installations tuned to existing technological and architectural systems and circuits (in this case, electricity and ventilation) that adapt to the specific morphology of museum buildings. The “system works” are both integrated in the exhibition and presented as independent infrastructure. They draw attention to the constructed nature of the built environment and to its many underlying patterns, invisible to the eye. The interest in the contrasts inherent in urban architecture, between the neat and structured outside vs. the jumbled and raw inside, features in the work of certain artists at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s, such as Carl André and Robert Smithson (Myers 132-135). Holt’s system works do not emphasize the rawness and chaos embedded in architecture, but rather reveal the systemic organization of buildings and larger environments (for instance, landfills on the margins of cities, in Holt’s unfinished project Sky Mound). Her system works are elegant networks of technology, not exploded and disjointed building units, that are on display in harmony with museum architecture.

23The exhibition succeeds in presenting Holt’s work in a European venue in its diversity and complexity, doing justice to a rich career spanning five decades. The catalogue offers illuminating discussions of Holt’s historical, artistic and ideological contexts, especially her position in relation to feminism. Holt: Inside Outside succeeds in placing Holt firmly at the heart of Land art and plays a role in the current reassessments of the constellation of Land art practices since the end of the 1960s, shifting attention from the artists that have traditionally occupied center stage to Holt and other artists who deserve as much attention and whose study reveals new meanings and nuances of Land art experimentation.

Fig. 7. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Ventilation System, 1981.

Fig. 7. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Ventilation System, 1981.

Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.

Fig. 8. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Electrical Lighting for Reading Room, 1985.

Fig. 8. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Electrical Lighting for Reading Room, 1985.

Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.

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Bibliographie

BOETTGER, Suzaan. Earthworks. Art and the Landscape of the Sixties. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

KAISER, Philipp, and Miwon KWON, eds. Ends of the Earth. Land Art to 1974. Munich: Prestel, 2012.

MYERS, Julian. “Earth Beneath Detroit.” Ends of the Earth. Land Art to 1974. Eds. Philipp Kaiser, and Miwon Kwon, eds. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, p. 129-156.

NISBET, James. Ecologies, Environments, and Energy Systems in Art of the 1960s and 1970s. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2014.

SWENSON, Kirsten. “Nancy Holt: Feminist, Artist, Mystic.” Nancy Holt. Stone Enclosure. Rock Rings. Ed. Kristina Lee Podesva. Bellingham: Bruna Press, 2022, p. 32-45.

TIBERGHIEN, Gilles A. Land Art. Paris: Dominique Carré Éditeur, 2012.

WAGNER, Anne M. “Being there: art and the politics of place.” Artforum, 2005. www.artforum.com/print/200506/being-there-art-and-the-politics-of-place-9002. Accessed February 2 2024.

WILLIAMS, Alena J., ed. Nancy Holt. Sightlines. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

*** Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Bildmuseet/Holt-Smithson Foundation, 2022.

*** Nancy Holt / Dentro Fuera. Barcelona: MACBA, 2023.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Trail Markers, 1969.
Légende Photographie: Miquel Coll, MACBA, 2023.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/docannexe/image/22660/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 463k
Titre Fig. 2. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Mirrors of Light, 1974.
Légende Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/docannexe/image/22660/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 159k
Titre Fig. 3. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Mirrors of Light, 1974.
Légende Photographie: Miquel Coll, MACBA, 2023.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/docannexe/image/22660/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 21k
Titre Fig. 4. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Sun Tunnels, 1976.
Légende Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/docannexe/image/22660/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 77k
Titre Fig. 5. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Sun Tunnels, 1976.
Légende Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/docannexe/image/22660/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 378k
Titre Fig. 6. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside.
Légende Photographie : Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/docannexe/image/22660/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 146k
Titre Fig. 7. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside.
Légende Photographie : Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/docannexe/image/22660/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 221k
Titre Fig. 7. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Ventilation System, 1981.
Légende Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/docannexe/image/22660/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 285k
Titre Fig. 8. Exhibition view. Nancy Holt / Inside Outside. Nancy Holt, Electrical Lighting for Reading Room, 1985.
Légende Photographie: Miquel Coll, 2023, MACBA.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/docannexe/image/22660/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 69k
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Monica Manolescu, « Nancy Holt / Inside Outside, July 13, 2023-January 7, 2024, Museum of Contemporary Art, Barcelona (MACBA) »Transatlantica [En ligne], 1 | 2024, mis en ligne le 01 juin 2024, consulté le 12 juillet 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/22660 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/11x2s

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Monica Manolescu

Université de Strasbourg/Institut Universitaire de France

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