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This document provides formatting guidelines for the publication of papers written in English in Transatlantica. Papers written in English follow the rules listed below. For additional information, see the latest edition of the MLA Handbook or the Purdue Online Writing Lab at For articles written in French, please refer to the French version of the style sheet.

General considerations

Articles for Transatlantica should include the following items:


author, affiliation (university)

abstract in English

résumé in French

keywords in English separated by commas

mots clés in French separated by commas

body text with footnotes (if any)

works cited

Margins are set to 2,5 cm on all sides throughout.

Paragraphs are separated by a single blank line. They should not be indented.

Body text is 12-pt font size, single-spaced and justified.

Headings are 14-pt font size, bold face. Subheadings are 12-pt font size, bold face. Headings and subheadings are separated from the body text by a single blank line. They are not followed by a period.

Please do not use any personal formatting styles, including titles, subtitles, and footnotes (these should be in 12-pt font size, single-spaced and justified).


If an article in English uses quotations in a different language, these quotations should use the typographical usage of the language in the quotation.

Short quotations (up to three lines) are enclosed in the body text using double quotation marks (“…”). Single quotation marks (‘…’) are used for quotes within quotes. The omission of words should be indicated with the following sign: […]. The addition or alteration of words and comments should be indicated within square brackets. By convention, commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation mark, but parenthetical references should be placed between the quotation and the required punctuation. Thus, if a quotation ends with a period, the period appears after the reference. If a quotation ending with a question mark or an exclamation point concludes your sentence, retain the original punctuation within the quotation mark and follow with the reference and the sentence period after the reference.

As Frith puts it, “far from being ‘counter cultural,’ rock articulated the reconciliation of rebelliousness and capital” (Frith 2).

While such patrons were collectors, they were not necessarily scholars; as Alan Wallach has pointed out, they were accused by contemporaries of knowing “more about pork barrels and molasses than […] about art” (17).

Nonetheless, for the first time in her life, Lucille was self-confident, and after talking to some experts and to Herb Sollow in particular, who told her that, “if [she] want[ed] Desilu to be a major player in the television business, [she] ha[d] got to do it” (Brady 293), she took the risk.

Dorothea Brooke responds to her sister, “What a wonderful little almanac you are, Celia!” (Eliot 7).

Long quotations (over 3 lines) should be set off as 10-pt block quotations, separated from the body text by a single blank line, without quotation marks or indentation. Punctuation marks must be placed before the parenthetical reference.

Obviously, no one organization in government, industry or academia could undertake such a project. Like the World Wide Web, it would require the grassroots efforts of hundreds of thousands of individuals, companies, university researchers, and government organizations. […] It could also become a “collaboratory”—a laboratory without walls—for research scientists seeking to understand the complex interaction between humanity and our environment. (Gore, 1998 n. p.)


This section follows and adapts the recommendations of the MLA Handbook.

Transatlantica follows the “author-page” method of in-text citation. The author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text. Works cited in the text and notes should all be listed in full in the works cited section. When several citations are included in the same parenthesis they should be separated with a semi-colon. When several pages or page-ranges from the same source are cited together they should be separated with commas.

In-text source information is provided in parentheses immediately following the quotation. The author’s name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses:

With the potential “too-much-ness” of unrelenting scenes of violence (Gates 191), he voices what Michael Taussig calls “the public secret […] which is generally known, but cannot be articulated” (5).

If the article or paragraph focuses on one single author or work, as in a book review, for example, any redundant information may be omitted and the page numbers might be sufficient.

When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks or italicize it depending on the nature of the source and provide a page number. Do not separate the two with a comma.

“I wish to state that he has published a little book, entitled The Narrative of Frederick Douglass, which may be had at the door” (American Slavery 16).

The works cited entry appears as follows:

American Slavery: Report of a Public Meeting Held at Finsbury Chapel, Moorfields, to Receive Frederick Douglass, the American Slave, on Friday, May 22, 1846. London, 1846.

For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation. For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al. (italicized). The full reference will then be indicated in the works cited section.

(Adams and Pleck 72-73)

(Berg et al. 801)

If two authors have the same last name, add the first initial or, if the initial is shared too, the full first name.

(E. Foner 27)

(P. Foner 210)

If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include the publication date of the particular work from which you are quoting.

As Jackson argues, scholars of slave culture and print culture “have rarely shared agendas” (2010 252). In his own study of antebellum authorial economies, Jackson has looked at slave author George Moses Horton’s poetical works from a book-historical perspective (2008 54-88).

If you cite more than one work by a particular author and the author’s name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author’s name followed by a comma, the date of publication of the work cited, and page number(s).

A high proportion of slaves did leave their former plantations to travel and move around, either because freedom to them meant their right to escape both their former workplace and the pass system that existed under slavery or because they were in search of family members and friends (Foner, 1988 80-84).

If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, include the volume number preceded by “vol.” and followed by the page number(s). If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses (the volume number will then be indicated in the works cited section).

As Ripley notes, by the late 1820s, “blacks considered colonization to be as threatening as slavery and prejudice” (1991 vol. 3 3).

Films and television shows should be referred to with their titles and listed under their titles in the works cited section. When a film is mentioned for the first time, please specify the names of the studio (for studio-era Hollywood films) and director, as well as the release date. When a television show is mentioned for the first time, please specify the network and the running dates.

In Stagecoach (Walter Wanger, John Ford, 1939), the character of Ringo is famously played by John Wayne.

Hill Street Blues (NBC, 1981-1987) was even more successful than expected.

Citations from films and television shows should include the timing of the cited sequence—i.e. the range of hours, minutes and seconds formatted as hh:mm:ss-hh:mm:ss—preceded by the season and episode numbers for television series. Please specify the date when several versions of the same movie are referred to in the article.

(Stagecoach 01:12:08-01:16:25)

(A Star is Born, 1937 00:25:47-00:32:07)

(A Star Is Born, 1954 00:38:53-00:45:14)

(Bewitched, 4.5 00:12:22-00:12:54)

Please refer to the MLA Handbook or the Purdue Online Writing Lab at for all cases not listed above.

Works cited

Entries in the works cited section correspond to the works cited in your main text. The rules illustrated by the following examples apply to all references, without regard to the language in which the publication is written. They are adapted from the recommendations of the MLA Handbook. Page numbers are not elided: e.g. 4-7, 8-13, 16-18, 34-76, 136-142.

A title should be treated as a quotation: if it is in a language other than English, please apply the typographical usage of the title’s language (e.g. space before a colon or question mark in French); a bibliographical reference as a whole, however, is part of the article: if the article is in English, this language’s typographical usage should be applied (e.g. city of publication in English; no space before the colon between the city of publication and the name of the publisher).

When the title of a source ends with a question mark or exclamation point, it should not be followed with another punctuation mark (comma or period).

CAVELL, Stanley. “What’s the Use of Calling Emerson a Pragmatist?” Emerson’s Transcendental Etudes. Ed. David J. Hodge. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003, p. 215-223.

DICK, Philip K. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Garden City: Doubleday, 1968.

When a source has no known author, it should be listed alphabetically under its title (in quotation marks or italicized depending on the nature of the source).


Books with one author

DUVALL, John N., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Don DeLillo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

GARVEY, Ellen Gruber. Writing with Scissors: American Scrapbooks from the Civil War to the Harlem Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

LACORNE, Denis. Les Frontières de la tolérance. Paris: Gallimard, 2016.

SAMUEL, Lawrence R. Aging in America: A Cultural History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017.

Please give only one city of publication.

Publishers’ names are given in full, except business words like Company (Co.), Corporation (Corp.), Incorporated (Inc.), and Limited (Ltd.), which are dropped.

Please capitalize the author’s surname, including prefixes like “Mc”; non-capitalized particles like “de” are placed in parentheses at the end of the author’s identification.

CERTEAU, Michel (de). The Practice of Everyday Life. Translated from the French by Steven F. Rendall. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

DU BOIS, W.E.B. Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880. 1935. New York: The Free Press, 1998.

LE DANTEC-LOWRY, Hélène. De l’esclave au président. Discours sur les familles noires aux États-Unis. Paris: CNRS Éditions, 2010.

MCMATH, Robert C. American Populism: A Social History, 1877-1898. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.

Two or more books by the same author

List works chronologically according to publication dates. Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for every entry.

WHITE, Hayden. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

WHITE, Hayden. The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.

If several works by the same author have the same publication date, list them alphabetically by title (ignoring the articles “A,” “An,” and “The”). Citations in parentheses in the body of the article must include the letter a, b, c, etc. immediately following (no space) the publication date.

TUSAN, Michelle. « Humanitarian Journalism: The Career of Lady Henry Somerset ». Women in Journalism at the Fin de Siècle: Making A Name for Herself. Dir. Elizabeth Gray. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2012, p. 91-109.

TUSAN, Michelle. Smyrna’s Ashes: Humanitarianism, Genocide, and the Birth of the Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

Book with more than one author or editor

Provide the full list of authors or editors. Place surname before first name (both followed by a comma) only for the first author/editor. When a source has three or more authors/editors, also use a comma before “and” followed by the last name in the list.

LEE, Anthony W., and John PULTZ. Diane Arbus: Family Albums. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

FILLIEULE, Olivier, Éric AGRIKOLIANSKY, and Isabelle SOMMIER, eds. Penser les mouvements sociaux. Conflits sociaux et contestations dans les sociétés contemporaines. Paris: La Découverte, 2010.

RAFFAELLE, Ryne, Wade ROBINSON, and Evan SELINGER, eds. Sustainability Ethics. Copenhagen: Automatic Press/VIP, 2010.

Edited works and anthologies

Edited works with more than one author and anthologies should be listed under the editor’s name, while the edited works of a single author should be listed under that individual author’s name.

ADAM, Barry, Jan Willem DUYVENDAK, and André KROUWEL, eds. The Global Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Politics: National Imprints of a Worldwide Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999.

BARAKA, Amiri, and Larry NEAL, eds. Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing. 1968. Baltimore: Black Classics Press, 2007.

FRANKLIN, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Eds. Leonard Labaree, Ralph L. Ketcham, Helen C. Boatfield, and Helene H. Fineman. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964.

Republished book

Insert the date of original publication immediately after the title.

BUTLER, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. 1990. New York: Routledge, 1999.

McCOY, Horace. No Pockets in a Shroud. 1937. New York: Midnight Classics, 1998.

Translated book

FOUCAULT, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated from the French by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.

E-reader format

Please avoid using device-specific page numbering systems.

THEILE, Verena, and Linda TREDENNICK, eds. New Formalism and Literary Theory. Kindle edition, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Book chapters

For the page range of book chapters and articles please use “p.” even when referring to several pages.

NORD, David Paul. “Free Grace, Free Books, Free Riders: The Economics of Religious Publishing in Early Nineteenth-Century America.” Religion, Media, and the Marketplace. Ed. Lynn S. Clark. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2007, p. 37-66.

COLE, Thomas. “Essay on American Scenery.” 1836. American Art, 1700-1960: Sources and Documents. Ed. John W. McCoubrey. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1965, p. 98-109.

GARDNER, Eric. “Of Bottles and Books: Reconsidering the Readers of Harriet Wilson’s Our Nig.” Harriet Wilson’s New England: Race, Writing, and Region. Eds. JerriAnne Boggis, Eve Allegra Raimon, and Barbara W. White. Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2007, p. 3-26.

CAZÉ, Antoine. “Reflet et réflexion dans The Scarlet Letter.” Hawthorne et la pensée du roman. Ed. Philippe Jaworski. Paris: Michel Houdiard, 2001, p. 11-22.

Article in a periodical

GODDU, Teresa A. “Anti-Slavery’s Panoramic Perspective.” MELUS: Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States, vol. 39, no. 2, 2014, p. 12-41.

WILLIAMS, Merle A. “A Tale of Two Oskars: Security or Hospitality in Jonathan Safran Foer’s Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close.” American Literary History, vol. 28, no. 4, 2016, p. 702-720.

HINTON, Elizabeth. “‘A War within Our Own Boundaries’: Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society and the Rise of the Carceral State.” Journal of American History, vol. 102, no. 1, 2015, p. 100-112.

BORDAT, Francis. “Cinéma et civilisation.” Revue française d’études américaines, no. 88, 2001, p. 44-52.

Online sources

For web publications, include the date of online publication (when available), the URL (without http:// or https://) followed by the date you accessed the material. You may also provide the DOI (Digital Object Identifier).

TAX FOUNDATION, “US Federal Income Tax Rates History, 1862-2013 (Nominal and Inflation-Adjusted Brackets).” 17 October 2013. Accessed 5 February 2018.

PERSYN, Catherine. “The Individual and the City in W.D. Howells’s The Rise of Silas Lapham.” E-rea, vol. 1, no. 1, 2003, Accessed 30 December 2016.

SHALEV, Eran. “Mercy Otis Warren, the American Revolution and the Classical Imagination.” Transatlantica, no. 2 | 2015, Accessed 30 December 2016.

JACKSON, Debra. “A Black Journalist in Civil War Virginia: Robert Hamilton and the Anglo-African.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 116, no. 1, 2008, p. 42-72. Accessed 30 December 2016.

DELAUNE, Benoît. “La métalepse filmique. De la transgression narrative à l’effet comique.” Poétique, no. 154, 2008, p. 147-160. DOI: 10.3917/poeti.154.0147.

Works of art

The citation should include: artist’s name and first name; work’s title (italicized); date of production; technical characteristics (materials, surface, technique); dimensions (in cm); place and city of curation.

The title can be indicated in the original language or in English—especially if provided by the curating institution—but authors should not provide their own translation. Titles should be translated into English for classic works of art. When the translated title is chosen, the original title should be provided in italics and in square brackets immediately following the translated title. For well-known works, please provide the most widely accepted translation. For Italian Renaissance works, please provide the artist’s usual name and translate the title.

DELACROIX, Eugène. Liberty Leading the People [La Liberté guidant le peuple]. 1830. Oil on canvas, 260 x 325 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

RAIMONDI, Marcantonio. Il Morbetto. 1514-1515. Engraving, 19,5 x 24,8 cm. Davison Art Center, Middletown.

RIST, Pipilotti. Slip my ocean. 1996. Video installation in color with sound, 8’, Variable dimensions. Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago.

TINTORETTO. Portrait of Luigi Groto. 1582. Oil on canvas, 91 x 101 cm. Municipal administration, Adria.

TINTORETTO. Saint Roch Healing the Plague-Stricken. 1549. Oil on canvas, 307 x 673 cm. Church of Saint Roch, Venice.

Please provide title variants, titles of series, sightings, aspects, and all other information that may identify the work or image.

DUCHAMP, Marcel. Please Touch [Prière de toucher]. 1947. Rubber breast on velvet, displayed behind glass. Boxed for the luxury edition of the catalogue of the exhibition “Le surréalisme en 1947,” Maeght Gallery, Paris, 41,8 x 34,7 x 7,1 cm. Musée national d’art moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris.

Torso of the "Diadumenus" type. Roman period bronze statue created circa 440-430 BC by Polyclitus, Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Films and television shows

Film citations should include: title; director; screenwriter; actors’ and actresses’ names with character in parentheses; studio; date. When relevant to analysis, you can also include: cinematographer; editor; composer. Television show citations should include: title; showrunner(s); actors’ and actresses’ names with character in parentheses; network; date. When citing a DVD version, please include: DVD company; date of release.

Saboteur. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Written by Peter Viertel, Joan Harrison, and Dorothy Parker. With Priscilla Lane (Patricia Martin), Robert Cummings (Barry Kane), Otto Kruer (Charles Tobin), and Norman Lloyd (Frank Fry). Cinematography by Joseph A. Valentine. Edited by Otto Ludwig and Edward Curtiss. Music by Frank Skinner. Frank Lloyd Productions / Universal, 1942. DVD. Universal Pictures France, 2017.

The Sopranos. Created by David Chase. With James Gandolfini (Tony Soprano), Lorraine Bracco (Dr. Jennifer Melfi), Edie Falco (Carmela Soprano), Michael Imperioli (Christopher Moltisanti), and Jamie-Lynn Sigler (Meadow Soprano). HBO, 1999-2007. DVD. Warner Bros., 2010.


CONSTANTINESCO, Thomas, Peter LURIE, and Erica FRETWELL. "'Feeling and Knowing.' An Interview with Erica Fretwell." Transatlantica, no. 2, 2023. Accessed 7 February 2024.


Footnotes (not endnotes) should preferably be used for substantive comments—rather than citation of sources. Footnotes are indicated in-text by superscript Arabic numbers after the punctuation of the phrase to which the note refers.

One essential feature of contemporary American writing, according to Patrick O’Donnell, is that “no matter how ‘realistic’ or ‘metafictional’ the work may be, on some level, it is attentive to and reflective about its status as a construction of language” (20).4

Typographical information


Use italics to set off the titles of major or freestanding works such as books, journals, movies, and paintings. This extends to cover the names of ships and other craft as well as legal cases and laws. Also use italics when employing foreign words and phrases in the text (but do not italicize quotations in a foreign language). Names of organizations are not italicized.

The Last of the Mohicans


The Birth of a Nation

Christina’s World

USS San Diego

Roe v. Wade

a priori

the United Nations

the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Italics can also be used to create emphasis. If the words you emphasize are part of a quotation, indicate that the emphasis is yours.

Be careful to italicize only the words you wish to italicize and the spaces between them, and not the preceding or following spaces as they would appear on screen as a lack of space. The same goes for the use of bold, underlined or superscripted text.

Capital letters

Capitalize proper nouns and adjectives derived from proper nouns:



Henry David Thoreau


Capitalize the following:

  • brand names (Cadillac, Dasani)

  • companies (Fox Searchlight Pictures, Pantheon Books)

  • days of the week and months of the year (Monday, January)

  • governmental bodies (Congress, Electoral College)

  • historical episodes and eras (Revolutionary War, Great Depression)

  • holidays (Martin Luther King Day, Labor Day)

  • institutions (Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Harvard University, Supreme Court)

  • manmade structures (Empire State Building, Golden Gate Bridge)

  • manmade territories (Republic of Texas, Orange County)

  • natural and manmade landmarks (Mount Rushmore, Hoover Dam)

  • nicknames and epithets (Old Hickory, Babe Ruth)

  • organizations and parties (American Anti-Slavery Society, National Organization for Women, Republican Party)

  • planets (Mercury, Venus)

  • races, nationalities, and tribes (African American, Caucasian)

  • religions and names of deities (Protestantism, Islam, Athena)

  • special occasions (Olympic Games, Sundance Film Festival)

  • streets and roads (Bleecker Street, Route 66)


Virtually all numbers not spelled out are commonly represented by Arabic numerals.

Use capital Roman numerals after the names of persons in a series.

George III

John D. Rockefeller IV

Do not truncate references to page numbers over 99: e.g. a reference to pages 236 to 249 should be written 236-249 (and not 236-49).

Use Roman numerals in small capital letters for citing pages of a book that are so numbered. Write out inclusive Roman numerals in full.

(Blassingame xxv-xxvi)

Be consistent in writing dates: use either the day-month-year style (30 December 2016) or the month-day-year style (December 30, 2016) but not both. Spell out centuries in lowercase letters (the twenty-first century). Hyphenate centuries when they are used as adjectives before nouns (nineteenth-century America).


Preferably use the Oxford comma in enumerations of three or more items (e.g. I love my parents, Lady Gaga, and Humpty Dumpty).

Single spaces are used after most punctuation marks (period, comma, colon, semicolon, exclamation point, question mark) but not before them.

There are no spaces within double inverted commas (which must be curly quotes, not straight ones), brackets, and square brackets.

When punctuating around quotation marks, periods and commas are placed before ending quotation marks whereas question marks and exclamation points are placed before ending quotation marks only when they are part of the quoted material.

Hyphens (-) are used to connect words or syllables, or to divide words into parts. You don’t use a space on either side of a hyphen.

Em dashes (—) can be used to indicate a summarizing thought or an afterthought. There are no spaces before or after the em dashes.

In 2000 the USA had an estimated two-fifths of all passenger cars in the world, over two hundred and twenty-one million registered motor vehicles (more vehicles than licensed drivers)—with figures rising yearly by the millions—and a lot fewer horses.

Use hard spaces (ctrl + shift + space) for elements that should not be separated.


F.°Scott Fitzgerald

vol.°39, no.°2


There shouldn’t be periods after the titles of the article and its various sections.


Acronyms should be written in capital letters, without spaces or periods. NB: acronyms should be spelled out in parentheses on the first occurrence.



Unlike acronyms, multiple initials in persons’ names are separated by periods but no space.

W.E.B. Du Bois


In a title or subtitle, capitalize the first word, the last word, and all the principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms. Use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless the title ends in a question mark or an exclamation point.

The Scarlet Letter

Alice in Wonderland

Everything Is Illuminated

A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius

The Last of the Mohicans

“My Kinsman, Major Molineux”

“The Man That Was Used Up”

Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Children’s Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death

Cultures of Letters: Scenes of Reading and Writing in Nineteenth-Century America

Plagiarama! William Wells Brown and the Aesthetic of Attractions

For titles in languages other than English, please print title as it appears in the source document (for instance on the cover or first page of the book or on the first page of the article). Please retain the punctuation and typographical conventions of the original title as printed in its original language in the source document. Please note that rules of capitalization for foreign-language titles may differ: titles may not bear capital letters on all principal words. Likewise, rules of spacing in relation to punctuation may differ.

PROUST, Marcel. À la recherche du temps perdu. Edited by Jean-Yves Tadié. Gallimard, 1999.

MÉLO, Alain. “Un carrefour routier au cœur du Jura méridional (Bugey, Ain) du ve au xviiie siècle : morphologie, modelés et itinéraires.” Archéologie médiévale, no. 47, 2017, p. 33-52.

Pictures and illustrations

The preferred format for images is JPEG. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission for the use of copyrighted material (and for specifying it in the list of illustrations). Please insert illustrations where there should appear in the text and also send a separate JPEG file in the highest resolution available.


Please make sure that there are no double spaces in your text thanks to the “Find and Replace” tool.

The use of spell-check (included in most word processors) is encouraged as it helps remove most typos. However be careful as grammar-check is not always accurate.

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