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Educational Training for Professional Self-Realization at Institutions of Higher Technical Education in Wartime

Liudmila Rybalko, Daria Ovsiuk et Xin Wang


Cet article présente une étude interdisciplinaire de la formation professionnelle dans l’enseignement supérieur technique. L’état de guerre en Ukraine rend nécessaire et urgente une actualisation la question de la préparation professionnelle dans les institutions d’enseignement supérieur technique. Cet article analyse la situation et propose plusieurs perspectives pour développer et réformer cette formation professionnelle.

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1The war that began in Ukraine on February 24, 2022, fundamentally changed the living conditions of a huge number of people. They began to feel constant fear, anger, anxiety. This makes it impossible to effectively perform official duties or study, makes it difficult to communicate, negatively affects the performance of social and personal functions. The sense of the future has changedpeople are building short-term, simple plans, orienting themselves for today.

2For example, higher education graduates stop planning their own self-development, lose interest in educational activities and preparation for professional self-assertion. Overcoming the mentioned negative effects, preserving the self-realization potential of a young person, in particular, in the professional sphere, becomes an important condition for preserving human capital and post-war recovery of our country.

3An effective means of developing readiness for professional self-realization of education seekers is training, in particular educational. Training as a means of influencing personality is widely used by psychologists and pedagogues.

4Researchers (Miliutina, 2004; Zlyvkov & Lukomska, 2019) indicate the advantages of training over other types of work, such as: clearly defined number of participants (usually small); unity of place, time and action; predominance of the activity of the participants over the activity of the trainer; classes aimed at forming not only theoretical knowledge, but also practical experience; focus on a specific professional problem; relying on the experience of training participants and the trainer; development of creativity in professional activity; internalization of professional motives and values; great communication potential.

5An important advantage of training over other training methods is its focus on the active position of participants who are interested in their own self-development and take active actions to realize their own desire.

Literature review

6Professional self-realization is a synthetic concept that describes the goal and process of individualization of one’s own abilities, motives, and needs in professional activity. Since those who have a higher education level are just preparing for professional activity, it is appropriate to talk about the development of their readiness for professional self-realization.

7The analysis of theoretical and methodological sources on the issue of readiness for professional self-realization of future specialists allowed us to reveal the concept of a personal neoplasm that develops during the period of learning a profession and becomes the basis for further professional development and affirmation of a specialist. For the formation of the specified neoplasm in the personality structure of the future specialist, it is promising to use the potential of training (Rybalko, 2007; Ovsiuk, 2022).

8Evolution of trainings (Zlyvkov & Lukomska, 2019) begins in the 40s of the 20th century. in the USA, where T-groups were organized to teach citizens the techniques of participatory democracy. In 1947, K. Levin proposed the use of T-groups for training managers. In the 1960s, under the influence of humanistic psychology, life skills trainings proposed by K. Rogers became popular.

9Further development of training in a socio-pedagogical form took place in the 70s of the 20th century. It is during this period that training programs are systematized, the general principles of training construction are identified, and “recipe books”books with exercisesare created. Since the late 1980s and early 1990s, it has been widely used by domestic researchers in various scientific fields.

10There is no single classification of types of training. Presented by the authors (Lukianchuk, 2013; Strashko, 2011; Rybalko et al., 2019; Rybalko, 2007) classifications distinguish trainings according to the following parameters: the number of participants or the number of presenters, time interval, leadership style, group structure; for the purpose of conducting (psychocorrective, social-psychological, personal growth, social-educational, psychocorrective, psychotherapeutic, educational, organizational, methodical, acmeological).

11Based on the above-mentioned classifications, we can assert the existence of the following types of training by purpose: psychological; psychotherapeutic; educational; organizational. It should be noted that trainings: psychological, psychotherapeutic, personal development are aimed at influencing the personal qualities of a person; while educational, methodical, and organizational trainings have an impact on the available knowledge, skills, and competencies of the participants.

12Social and educational or educational training (Strashko, 2011; Tverdokhlib, 2017) is recognized as an organizational form of educational work, mainly group work, which, based on the experience and knowledge of its participants, is active in nature, ensures the effective use of various pedagogical methods due to the creation of a positive creative emotional atmosphere in the group, and is aimed at obtaining formed skills and life skills.

13The main goal of educational training in the methodical preparation of higher education applicants is the formation of specific practical skills and abilities, as well as the prevention of typical mistakes and difficulties in future professional activities.

14Thus, educational training is a specific form of providing an educational service to the participants of the educational process (Myskova, 2018; Shorobura & Tkachenko, 2019; Ctynska & Karpenko, 2021; Bevz & Hodovaniuk, 2018).

15The following are the main advantages of the specified form in comparison with others: active position of the participants; partnership nature of the relationship between the participants and the coach; independent search and construction of own knowledge by training participants; multifaceted communication and availability of feedback, orientation to questions and search, work with human potential, independence and ability of applicants to make decisions. The researchers call for maximum use of the potential, knowledge and experience of each training participant.

16Training as a form is widely used for training higher education seekers; retraining of specialists on advanced training courses; raising the professional level; self-development of the future specialist: skills of reflection, self-regulation, self-management and self-improvement (Lytvyn et al., 2019; Senovska & Nestaiko, 2021; Denha & Novoseletska, 2018; Senchyna, 2018).

17The combination of the purpose and the forms of carrying out various types form new interesting synthetic forms of training. For example, acmeology training. The purpose of acmeological training is the development of professionally important personality qualities, the practical embodiment of the individual’s inner potential, which makes it close to psychological training.

18But the realization of the specified goal occurs through the construction of a successful professional strategy, which makes acmeology training close to organizational trainings (Rybalko et al., 2017). Finally, by its design, it is an educational training during which the participant acquires and develops new competencies.

19Another synthetic form of training, the purpose of which is to help overcome the negative effects of a life crisis, is educational anti-crisis training (Ovsiuk et al., 2022). The training was created as a combination of developments in organizational psychology (Orhanyzatsiina psykholohiia, 2021; Pryshchak & Lesko, 2016) and psychological stability and stress resistance trainings.

20Educational anti-crisis training is defined as a form of providing an educational service for participants in the pedagogical process with the aim of overcoming the negative effect of life crises. Its main goal is realized by educational means (mini-lectures, brainstorming, discussion, cases, projects). But encountering strong negative feelings of people caught in a crisis makes it necessary to use certain psychological exercises and techniques.

21The purpose of the study is to reveal the level of readiness of future specialists of higher technical education institutions for professional self-realization in war conditions and to show the role of educational training in the formation of this readiness.


22The respondents of the study were students of the 1st-3rd years of the first (bachelor) level of higher education of the National Aerospace University – Kharkiv Aviation Institute of the Faculty of Humanities and Law, who studied under the educational and professional program 053 “Psychology”. The total number of research participants was 59 people. The study participants were not divided by gender, age, or region of residence.

23To identify the existing level of expression of the desire for professional self-realization, the multi-factor self-realization questionnaire of S. I. Kudinov was used. The questionnaire consists of 102 questions, which are structured according to 17 scales, of which 16 paired scales are meaningful (social-corporate and subject-personal settings of self-realization, its activity and inertia, optimism or pessimism of the forecast, internal or external vector, socio-or egocentric motivation, creativity or conservatism of the course, constructiveness or destructiveness, influence of social or personal barriers), 1 – a scale for determining the truthfulness of respondents’ answers.

24The questionnaire determines the following indicators: the general level of development of respondents’ self-realization, the leading area in which self-realization occurs, leading attitudes, vectors, motives of self-realization.

25Based on the results of the survey, the overall level of self-realization of the respondent is determined. A total of 5 levels of self-realization development are stated in the questionnaire – intensive (very high), harmonious (high), adaptive (medium), inert (low), irrational (very low). The directions of self-realization that the respondents strive for were defined as personal, social, and activity.

26The research was conducted as follows. With the beginning of a full-scale invasion, educational anti-crisis training was theoretically substantiated and practically created for students of higher education. The pilot training was conducted among students of the Visual Communication Design Department of Changchun University of Science and Technology.

27Based on the participants’ feedback regarding the piloting, as well as the current situation, changes were made to the educational training regarding the means, methods, and terms of its implementation. In this form, trainings are held among students of the first (bachelor) level of higher education National Aerospace University – Kharkiv Aviation Institute.

28Before the event, applicants are invited to complete the previously mentioned questionnaire transferred to a google form. The results of the survey were processed using the methods of mathematical statistics to determine the significance of changes between the indicators before and after. SPSS Statistics 26 software was used for this. The research will be conducted in accordance with ethical norms and European standards of psychological research.


29The quantitative processing of the survey results. During the quantitative processing of the results of the survey of respondents, the following was revealed:

  1. The results on the “Truth” scale do not exceed a statistically significant value, which indicates that the majority of respondents gave honest answers and the results of the survey can be subjected to further analysis.

  2. The leading level of self-realization of bachelors of specialty 053 “Psychology” is currently adaptive (average) – 44% of respondents, inert (low) – 38% of respondents, the level of self-realization, which is presented in figure 1.

Figure 1. Expression of the levels of self-realization of the first (bachelor) level of higher education (the green colour – adaptive; yellow – inert; blue – harmonious; red – irrational).

30Signs of an adaptive (average) level of self-realization are moderation in the manifestation of the desire for it; orientation to the result that can be achieved without great effort; self-realization in a certain field of activity is not the main goal and value of life, but it is desirable; a person periodically makes certain efforts to develop his/her own personality, achieve professionalism, and develop abilities.

31Signs of an inert (low) level of self-realization are a low level of striving for self-realization; striving for such a result of self-realization that can be achieved without making any effort; self-realization is not the goal of a person’s life; the individual does not make an effort to realize himself in a certain field of activity, prefers recreational activities.

32Only a small number of respondents (6%) have a harmonious (high) level of development of the desire for self-realization. However, the irrational (low) level of development of self-realization is represented by a small percentage of respondents (12%).

33As we got from the data, self-realization of the individual in the social sphere related to social activities – volunteering, participation in self-governance, performance of socially important tasks – is the least popular among those with a higher education level. According to this indicator, the irrational (very low) level of self-realization prevails.

34It was also found that the achievers do not demonstrate an intensive (very high) level of self-realization in any field of activity. Only a small number of respondents (2%) showed a harmonious (high) level of self-realization in the personal direction of activity. The direction of activity in which higher education level applicants are most interested in self-realization is personal.

35That is, to harmoniously develop one’s own personality, to strive for a high level of personal and spiritual development. It also shows an interest in building a harmonious personal space, a high level of interaction with family and loved ones. However, the prevailing level of personal self-realization is the adaptive (average) level, which indicates unwillingness to exhaust oneself too much by overcoming difficulties and achieving results at any cost. At this level, the individual does not seek to surpass others in a certain activity.

36The main strategy falls under the saying “to be like everyone else” – not to stand out strong enough neither for the worse nor for the better. The movement towards the goal of self-realization is variable, sometimes the respondent makes significant efforts to achieve the goal, in other periods – makes a minimal amount of them.

37Professional self-realization is of interest to those who have a higher education level, but the adaptive (medium) and inert (low) level prevails. The adaptive (average) level was described above, so let’s note the essence of the inert (low) level of self-realization. The personality does not show activity to change himself or external circumstances, considers the profession and success in it as a means of achieving other tasks, although not against being successful in professional activities without making great efforts. Not interested in improving his/her own professional skills.

38The interpretation of individual scales of the questionnaire can be presented like that. The lowest indicators were found on the scales “Conservatism”, “Externality” and “Pessimism”. This indicates the absence of stereotyping, movement along the usual path in achieving self-realization. Respondents strive for changes in their lives, easily change the means of achieving what they want. Also, respondents largely control the process of their own self-realization, are ready to take responsibility for its course, do not consider external circumstances and other people to be decisive in their own self-realization.

39Graduates of higher education have a positive attitude to the possibilities of their own self-realization, adequately assess their own possibilities for its implementation, usually do not feel fear before starting a new business and believe that they will be able to successfully complete it. Another low-scoring scale is the Inertia scale. This indicates high energy and ease in switching between different directions of self-realization, as well as different methods and styles of its implementation.

40The use of mathematical statistics methods and digital capabilities. During the qualitative processing of the survey results, mathematical statistics methods and digital capabilities of the SPSS Statistics 26 software package were used. The Student’s t-test was used to determine a statistically significant difference between the influence of paired criteria on the respondent’s personality. A significant discrepancy between two paired scales indicates the unevenness of their manifestation during the self-realization of the individual. Insignificant discrepancy – about the uniform manifestation of indicators during self-realization of respondents. The results of the analysis are presented in table 1.1.

Table 1.1. The results of the comparative analysis according to the t-Student test.

41A significant discrepancy between the paired scales “Creativity”-“Conservatism”, “Activity”-“Inertia”, “Optimism”-“Pessimism”, “Internal locus of control”-“External locus of control” indicates that self-realization is determined by only one of the pair of scales. Insignificant discrepancy between the pairs of scales “Social barriers”-“Personal barriers”, “Social motives”-“Personal motives” indicate that the respondents’ self-realization is determined by both scales from the pair. The analysis also shows a significant advantage in the group of indicators of creativity, activity, optimism, internal locus of control as prerequisites for successful self-realization of the individual.

42In order to check the difference in the desire for self-realization in different areas of activity – personal, social, professional, the Student’s t-test was also applied. The results of the comparison are presented in table 1.2.

Table 1.2. The results of comparing the desire for self-realization in different areas of activity.

43The results of the analysis indicate that the respondents are equally interested in personal and professional self-realization, and little interest in social self-realization.

44To find out to what extent the traits indicated in the scales are significant for successful self-realization in the leading areas of activity – personal, social, professional. Psychosemantic analysis of the structure of qualities was carried out using the rank correlation coefficient according to Kendall’s tau criterion. The results are presented in table 1.3.:

45Respondents indicated that social barriers have the greatest negative impact on the course of professional self-realization (insignificant awareness of professional activity, insufficient professional experience and knowledge, unfavorable working conditions, unfavorable relations in the team); inflexibility and conservatism in ways to achieve it; pessimism about its course and ultimate goal; transfer of responsibility to external circumstances; personal barriers (anxiety, fears, rigidity, insecurity, inability to find a common language with colleagues, lack of awareness of criticism); lack of an active position regarding one’s own self-realization. According to respondents, the only factor that positively affects professional self-realization is taking responsibility for one’s own life.

Table 1.3. Significant correlations between the scales of the questionnaire according to the directions of self-realization.

46The correlation findings. The predominance of negative correlations indicates that the respondents understand what will hinder them. However, the idea of what is necessary for successful self-realization, in particular, professional, is not sufficiently formed. This tendency is also observed during the analysis of correlations in other directions of self-realization. The “Conservatism”, “Inertia”, “Pessimism”, “External Locus of Control” scales receive invariably negative correlations. We should also note that although the respondents are the least interested in social self-realization, they imagine it more fully and meaningfully than personal or professional self-realization. This is evidenced by four positive correlations, while personal and professional self-realization have only one each.

47A first-order correlation between personal and professional self-realization is also observed, which indicates awareness of professional self-development as a life goal and one of the ways to achieve personal happiness and harmony.

48The obtained results of the analysis of the questionnaire testify to the insufficient development of ideas of the acquirers of the first (bachelor) level of higher education about the ways of professional self-realization. For the development of professional activity, creativity, confidence in one’s own abilities, we suggest using educational training.

49When creating both a separate training session and the entire training as a whole, the principle of the parabola should be followed. The tasks of educational anti-crisis training should be given according to the principle of “parabola” in terms of educational and emotional saturation.

50In the process of creating an educational training, we took into account the general rules for organizing a training session. First, the duration of one training session was 1.5 hours with a short break after 45 minutes. Secondly, the maximum number of participants did not exceed 20 people. (Miliutina, 2004; Tverdokhlib, 2017). Training groups were formed by students of higher education who study in the same course. The trainings were held for students of the first (bachelor) level of higher education, 1-3 years.

51The training stages. The main stages that were reflected in the structure of the training are: warm-up, main part, decompression (Senovska & Nestaiko, 2021). The warm-up includes – introduction/greeting; formation of a training group; announcement of the purpose and objectives of the training; the participants’ expression of their own expectations; establishment of training rules; creation of intragroup unity.

52At the first meeting, quite a lot of time is allocated for participants to enter the training, however, if the training lasts several days, at subsequent meetings the time for entering is gradually reduced, and certain elements (group formation, setting training rules) may be excluded altogether. At this stage, a large number of psychological methods are used: to welcome and activate participants (“Active names”, “Chain of movements”, “Carousel of good wishes”, “We are similar to you”), to establish a sense of the group (“Transfer of movements”, “Confusion”, “Three Steps”, “Circle of Trust”).

53At the main stage of the educational training, the alternation of theory and practice, active involvement of participants in the work is determined. Many methods are used for this: discussion, brainstorming, role-playing and business games, joint cases, cases, preparation and defense of projects, exercises, projective technologies (drawing, modeling, metaphorical maps). (Ctynska & Karpenko, 2021; Pryshchak & Lesko, 2016).

54For more efficient performance of the task, division into subgroups can be applied. The combination of pedagogical, psychological and organizational technologies at this stage solves several training tasks, namely: obtaining information about stress, life crisis, working out effective methods of countering it, starting work on emotional and behavioral adaptation to a crisis situation, establishing group mutual assistance and interaction.

55Effective at this stage of training is the use of art therapy methods. Art therapy is a combination of art forms that are used to support the individual. The following advantages of art therapy are distinguished (Tararina, 2022; Podkorytova, 2016):

  • ease and acceptability of art therapy as a method of creating positive emotions from the creative process;

  • environmental friendliness and safety;

  • the ability to express feelings and emotions directly, without rationalization and verbalization;

  • development of imagination, creative abilities, reflexivity and empathy of training participants;

  • development of communication skills and positive intergroup dynamics of participants;

  • a means of free self-expression and self-discovery.

56Exercises and techniques. Some exercises and techniques that can be used at this stage: “Color spots” (work with emotions, selection of positive and negative images), “8 squares” (looking at the problem as if from the side, discussion of possible ways to solve the problem), “Metaphorical fairy tale” (creating a positive mood, finding resources to solve the problem), “My flower family” (analysis of the role of the family in support in difficult situations), “My inner strengths” (work on finding and analyzing one’s own resources, finding positive opportunities for self-development), “Mandala” (analysis of oneself, one’s experiences, strengths and weaknesses, “Self-motivation” (a five-minute exercise for emotional support here and now).

57The following exercises are more difficult: creating maps and collages, working with plasticine and foil, making dolls, phototherapy, creating therapeutic comics and sketches. Important for the effectiveness of the educational training is the explanation of the trainer’s actions for the participants, the demonstration and interpretation of typical elements of a picture or storytelling, answers to the participants’ questions, and discussion of situations that arose during the trainer’s use of the technique.

58At the decompression stage, there is a reflection of the experience gained during the class, feedback is made between the trainer and the participants, and a farewell is held. If the main part of the training was emotionally saturated, it will be appropriate to conduct a relaxation and/or resource exercise before the reflection. Projective methods (“Resource map”, “Metaphoric maps”, “My safe place”, “Drawing of the palm”), motor exercises (“Brownian motion”, “Shaking”, “The sea waves once...”), exercises on grounding (“I am a tree”, “Five objects, five feelings”), affirmations (Tverdokhlib, 2017; Pryshchak & Lesko, 2016).

59It should be noted that educational trainings are currently conducted in an online format, which changes the usual exercises and techniques. For example, the use of exercises where participants repeat movements one after the other to create intra-group dynamics currently does not fulfill the stated purpose. Art therapy methods of creating group dynamics have become more widespread.

60It also complicates the process of developing intragroup dynamics, which requires additional efforts from the coach, allocating time for additional exercises. A discussion or debate about an exercise you just did or a professional situation being discussed is effective. When conducting online training, effective platforms for this form of work are interactive whiteboards, in particular Padlet or Jamboard.

61Training participants can not only write their own thoughts, but also pin pictures, links, videos or audio clips for mutual reference. It should be noted that online training is very picky about meeting the time limits of the training. Working at the computer tires the participants more quickly, so the trainer should pay more attention to both the time allocated for exercises and the general condition of the participants (Senovska & Nestaiko, 2021).


62In the course of the study, the urgent level of development of readiness of future specialists of institutions of higher technical education for professional self-realization in the conditions of war was determined. Dominant is medium to low level. Those who have a higher education level are interested in professional self-realization, understand what barriers will stand in the way of it. However, future specialists are not sufficiently aware of what will be favorable for self-realization in the profession.

63The role of educational training during the training of future specialists is to promote the development of students of institutions of higher technical education in readiness for professional self-realization through the improvement of professional and communicative skills, professionally important qualities – creativity, activity, self-confidence and the ability to independently make and defend one’s own decisions.

64The described experience is interdisciplinary in nature, since the educational trainings are organized in Ukraine. In the future, the research results can be used for the development of other personal neoplasms of future specialists. The conducted research does not exhaust all aspects of the problem of formation of readiness for professional self-realization of future specialists in the conditions of war. The effectiveness of other types of trainings, in particular, acmeological ones, require further study.

Strashko, S., Sliva, M. & Kaliuzhnyi, Ya. (2011) Treninh yak orhanizatsiina forma navchalno-vykhovnoi roboty [Training as an organizational form of educational work]. Metodyka vykladannia pryrodnychykh dystsyplin u vyshchii shkoli Methodology of teaching natural sciences in high school. Poltava : Astaraia Publ., pp. 209-211 (in Ukrainian)

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Table des illustrations

Légende Figure 1. Expression of the levels of self-realization of the first (bachelor) level of higher education (the green colour – adaptive; yellow – inert; blue – harmonious; red – irrational).
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Légende Table 1.1. The results of the comparative analysis according to the t-Student test.
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Légende Table 1.2. The results of comparing the desire for self-realization in different areas of activity.
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Légende Table 1.3. Significant correlations between the scales of the questionnaire according to the directions of self-realization.
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Liudmila Rybalko, Daria Ovsiuk et Xin Wang, « Educational Training for Professional Self-Realization at Institutions of Higher Technical Education in Wartime »Tréma [En ligne], 60 | 2023, mis en ligne le 22 septembre 2023, consulté le 13 juin 2024. URL : ; DOI :

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Liudmila Rybalko

H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv (Ukraine) / Department of Education and Innovative Pedagogy

Daria Ovsiuk

H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv (Ukraine) / Department of Education and Innovative Pedagogy

Xin Wang

Changchun University of Science and Technology (People’s Republic of China) / College of Optical and Electronical information

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