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Les projets d’agricultures urbaines : des vecteurs de transitions

Global scale arsenic pollution : increase the scientific knowledge to reduce human exposure

Muhammad Shahid, Camille Dumat, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Sana Khalid and Natasha


Arsenic contamination in water is a crucial human health and scientific challenge worldwide. Actually, high As levels above the recommended limit set by world health organization (10 µg/L) have been found in ground water of several countries around the world and millions of people have been exposed to As contaminated drinking water. The aim of the present paper is therefore to provide a synthesis of recent interdisciplinary knowledge on arsenic, in particular for urban gardeners and farmers who may be confronted with well water pollution or contamination of produced vegetables. The origins, chemical forms, routes of arsenic transfer and its impact on human health are discussed. Geogenic As contamination represents a major health threat in many countries, especially Asia. Advices are therefore finally proposed to avoid and reduce human exposure to arsenic in the context of urban agricultures.

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1A growing development of urban gardening and farming activities is observed across the planet (Ghose and Pettygrove, 2014 ; Dumat et al., 2016 ; Xiong et al., 2017). However, in the strongly anthropogenic urban areas, pollutions are frequently observed (Mitchell et al., 2014 ; Dumat et al., 2015). Moreover, due to the high population density it’s necessary to propose enough drinking and usable for irrigation water. In that context, it’s therefore crucial to widely increase the knowledge of citizens on pollution risk and management in order to avoid human exposure particularly in relation with water quality. With the presence of persistent (eco)toxic pollutants (such as metals and metalloids) in all the ecosystems, pedagogical scientific communication and procedures are therefore needed in various sectors such as agriculture to live and perform various current activities without human exposure, particularly throughout water or food ingestion (Xiong et al., 2014a ; Xiong et al., 2014b).

2Arsenic (As) a persistent inorganic element, classified as the most toxic and carcinogenic contaminant by several national and international environmental and health organizations, currently poses a severe threat to the human and environmental health (Shakoor et al., 2015). It has gained substantial attention in recent years owing to the high levels observed in different environmental compartments (Niazi and Burton, 2016 ; Shakoor et al., 2016a ; Rafiq et al., 2017a ; Shahid et al., 2017b), especially in groundwater where it is used for drinking water supplies and has caused adverse impacts on human health (Shakoor et al., 2015 ; Niazi et al., 2017c). As the other natural inorganic elements, arsenic is released by natural processes such as weathering of parent material, volcanic eruptions and geothermal waters.

3The aim of the present paper is to provide a synthesis of recent interdisciplinary knowledge on arsenic, in particular for urban gardeners and farmers who may be particularly confronted with well water pollution or contamination of produced vegetables. The origins, chemical forms, routes of arsenic transfer and its impact on human health are discussed. Advices are finally proposed to avoid and reduce human exposure to arsenic in the context of urban agricultures.

Arsenic – A global contaminant

4Arsenic has gained a substantial attention in recent years owing to its high levels currently observed in the drinking water and adverse impacts on human health (Niazi et al., 2018). The compounds of As are classified as "toxic" and "dangerous for the environment" in the European Union under directive 67/548/EEC. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have recognized As and its compounds as Group 1 human carcinogen (WHO, 2008). The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has ranked As No. 1 among the top 20 priority hazardous substances (ATSDR, 2014). The toxicities of various As compounds to man, animals and plants have been studied by various workers (Shakoor et al., 2018 ; (Niazi et al., 2016 ; Niazi et al., 2017a ; Rafiq et al., 2017b ; Shakoor et al., 2018). Taking into account the toxicity of arsenic compounds, the World Health Organization (WHO), United Sates Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2005) set the arsenic standard for drinking water at 10 µg/L (WHO, 2016). In some countries like India, Pakistan, China, Bangladesh and Taiwan, the threshold level of arsenic is still 50 μg/L. It is roughly estimated that more than 100 million people of the world are at risk due to provisional guideline 10 μg/L of arsenic, and more than 45 million people belonging to developing countries of Asia are facing 50 μg/L of arsenic exposure (Shahid et al., 2015b ; Shakoor et al., 2015 ; Chakraborti et al., 2018).

5Arsenic (atomic number 33 ; atomic wt. 73.9416 g/mol) is ubiquitous soils, sediments and water environments. It ranks in abundance as 14th in the ocean water, and 12th in human body (Khalid et al., 2017d). Arsenic constitutes approximately 0.00005 % of the Earth’s crust, and is the 20th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). Usually arsenic level in natural seawater is 1-2 µg/L (Gunnar et al., 2007), in natural sources 12 mg/L (Grinspan and Biagini, 1985), 0.5-5000 μg/L in natural water (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). Most frequently found As concentrations in freshwater is < 1 μg/L and generally < 10 μg/L. It rarely occurs in its pure form, and is a natural constituent of more than 200 minerals in the Earth’s crust (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002 ; Garelick et al., 2009).

6The most common As-bearing minerals could include oxides, sulfides, carbonates and silicate (Drahota and Filippi, 2009). Arsenic is relatively concentrated in gold- and sulfide-bearing ore deposits. Pyrite (FeS) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS) are typical examples of sulfide-bearing minerals with high As contents (Murcott, 2012). Arsenopyrite is reported to be the most abundant As-containing mineral (up to 4.5 wt. % As), and usually occurs under anaerobic subsurface or marine environments (Henke, 2009). Concentrations of As usually range between 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg in most rocks, but may be at higher concentrations in fine-grained phosphorites and argillaceous sediments (Henke, 2009 ; Shakoor et al., 2016b). The wide presence of As in numerous different minerals favors its dispersion both geogenically and anthropogenically.

7Nowadays, it is well-known that chemical speciation of a metal greatly affects its biochemical behavior (Shahid et al., 2014a ; Shahid et al., 2015a ; Abbas et al., 2018 ; Natasha et al., 2018). In fact, the toxicity of As and other metals to living organisms are dependent on their chemical speciation (Shahid et al., 2012b ; Austruy et al., 2014 ; Shahid et al., 2014b ; Shamshad et al., 2018)Shahid et al., 2012b). Arsenic mainly occurs in aquatic systems as inorganic As species ; the very toxic oxyanions of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are the predominant forms of As that occur in aqueous environments. Arsenic has four oxidation states -3, 0, 3 and 5. But, in water, arsenic has most likely two oxidation states i.e. 3 and 5. In oxygenated water, oxidation 5 is prevailing as arsenate while in reducing conditions, oxidation 3 is more likely to be present as arsenite (Khalid et al. 2017b).

Water shortage and quality in terms of As contamination : A worldwide scenario

8Water is compulsory for human health, economic development and societal growth. Safe drinking water is the main concern of today’s world. Different Governments, organizations and communities are striving for the elimination of this concern. According to an estimate, about 1 in 9 people lack access to safe water, and > two billion people lack access to safe drinking water. By 2025, two third population of the world will face the fresh water shortage. Only 3 % fresh water is available on the earth. Out of 3 %, only 0.01 % water is available for human consumption. It is shocking to know that this fraction of fresh water is under stress of scarcity on account of unchecked use of fresh water for agriculture and industrial use.

9For the preceding few decades, environmental contamination by arsenic is the main public and environmental health concern in different regions of the world (Bakhat et al., 2017 ; Khalid et al., 2017b ; Mehmood et al., 2017 ; Niazi et al., 2017b ; Zia et al., 2017). Recently, several new sites of As contaminated groundwater have been reported worldwide, especially in Asian countries (Chakraborti et al., 2013 ; Shahid et al., 2017a ; Shakoor et al., 2018). Before 2000, there were four major areas of As groundwater contamination in Asian : West Bengal, Bangladesh, India, and sites in China. Between 2000 and 2015, As-contaminated groundwater problem has emerged in various Asian countries, including Mongolia, Cambodia, Nepal, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Western Iran, Korea, Viet Nam and Pakistan. The menace of arsenic contamination in groundwater has now been found in more than 105 countries in world (Shakoor et al., 2015 ; Chakraborti et al., 2018). More than 200 million people are exposed to the concentration greater than WHO guideline value of arsenic (Shahid et al., 2012a ; Shakoor et al., 2015).

10It is reported that India, especially the Gangae-Meghnae-Brahmaputra (GMB) plain, and Bangladesh are the worst affected among Asian countries in case of arsenic groundwater contamination (Chakraborti et al., 2018 ; Gupta and Singh, 2018). People dwelling in Bangladesh and India have been directly exposed to arsenic toxicity by reason of using arsenic contaminated groundwater for domestic chores, drinking and crop irrigation (Chakraborti et al., 2018 ; Gupta and Singh, 2018). Of 59 out of 64 districts in Bangladesh has arsenic level above the guideline level recommended by WHO (10 µg/L) (Chakraborti et al., 2010). Noakhali (Bangladesh) and South Parganas (India) have 4730 µg/L and 3700 µg/L arsenic concentration in groundwater respectively (Chakraborti et al., 2013).

11Arsenic occurrence in groundwater is the outcome of many factors such as anthropogenic activities, geochemical reactions and biological action. The desorption and dissolution of arsenic from arsenic rich rocks and minerals are the main sources of groundwater contamination and soil (Khalid et al., 2017c). Arsenic is released from rocks by various processes under oxygenated and reducing conditions, much high amount of dissolved arsenic is generated resultantly (Shakoor et al., 2015) (Figure 1). After that, this dissolved arsenic contaminates the other compartments of environment (Khalid et al., 2017c).


Figure 1. Sources and speciation of arsenic in groundwater.

Figure 1. Sources and speciation of arsenic in groundwater.

13Volcanic rocks and geothermal fluids are another major sources of arsenic (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002) (Figure 2). Arsenic is present in rocks and these rocks are crushed for construction purpose. It is estimated that nearly 3 billion tons aggregates are produced every year by 27 members of the European Union alone (statistics published by the European Aggregates Association UEPG). Every year 12000 tons arsenic is subjected to environment naturally (Pacyna and Pacyna, 2001). In 2002, approximately 19,600 metric tons of arsenic used in USA, and about 90 % of which was used as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) for treatment of wood (USGS, 2017).

14Man-induced release of As by various industrial and agricultural activities may also contaminate ground/drinking water by As. Burning of fossil fuels, mining activities, use of As herbicides, fungicides and pesticides, wood preservatives, crop desiccants and As additives to livestock are the main anthropogenic sources for As contamination of ground-water (Garelick et al., 2009).

Figure 2. Arsenic cycle in the environment.

Figure 2. Arsenic cycle in the environment.

15Arsenic concentrations in groundwater have been found at chronic elevated concentrations (up to 4,000 µg L–1), affecting over 200 million people worldwide, including areas of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, China, Taiwan, the USA, Canada, Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia, Hungary, and Mexico (Shakoor et al., 2016b). About 100 million people are at high risk of As poisoning from groundwater consumption in the Southeast Asia region alone (Rahman et al., 2009a ; Rahman et al., 2010 ; Potera, 2015 ; Wu et al., 2015 ; Moyé et al., 2017). In the human body, As accumulation mainly takes place through the intake of As-contaminated drinking well water and by consumption of As-contaminated food (e.g. vegetables and rice) (Shakoor et al., 2015 ; Shahid et al., 2017a ; Shahid et al., 2017c ; Tabassum et al., 2018). The health effects of As consumption vary from skin lesions to liver, kidney and brain cancers, along with stomach poisoning (Khalid et al., 2017c ; Chakraborti et al., 2018). In the context of health effects from drinking of As-contaminated well water both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have decreased acceptable As threshold level for drinking water from 50 µg L–1 to 10 µg L–1 (WHO, 2016).

Arsenic exposure to humans via water and vegetables ingestion

16Arsenic intake via drinking water accessed from wells sunk into groundwater is a major source of As exposure to humans in different regions of the world (Shahid et al., 2015a ; Shahid et al., 2016 ; Niazi et al., 2017a). Arsenic has no taste, odor and color. So, it is too difficult to detect exposure to arsenic by a layman. Exposure to moderate or high concentrations of As can cause numerous physiological, morphological and biochemical disorders in almost all forms of living organisms (Shahid). Acute poisoning occurs due to the consumption of large quantity of arsenic with lower exposure time ; on the other hand, chronic poisoning results from ingestion of arsenic contaminated water with long exposure time (Chakraborti et al., 2018). High dose of arsenic with less exposure has less hazardous effects on human health. But low dose with continuous exposure has more hazardous effects. Acute exposure of arsenic causes abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, muscular pain, weakness, with flushing of the skin rashes, muscular cramping, hyperkeratosis, melanosis, black foot disease, damage of motor and sensory responses (Ng et al., 2003 ; Kapaj et al., 2006 ; Rahman et al., 2009b) (Figure 3). Chronic intoxication causes hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, skin cancer, bladder and lung cancer and peripheral neuropathy (Rahman et al., 2009b). Skin cancer is caused with minimum 5 years exposure time to arsenic and cardiovascular diseases are reported among children drinking arsenic contaminated water. Flanagan et al. (2012) reported that exposure to 10–50 µg/L and >50 µg/L result an annual 19000 and 24000 adult deaths, respectively.

Figure 3. Chronic arsenic poisoning to human.

Figure 3. Chronic arsenic poisoning to human.

17Food safety has gained considerable attention worldwide during the last two decades ((Shahid et al., 2013 ; Xiong et al., 2016 ; Shahid et al., 2017d). Recently, several studies reported and predicted possible human health risks as a result of contaminated food consumption. Millions of people worldwide, especially in south-east Asia, have been poisoned via consumption of arsenic-contaminated food-crops (Xiong et al., 2014a). Accordingly, it is of practical importance to consider the extent of arsenic accumulation in food/water. Health risk assessment based on consumption of arsenic-contaminated ground/drinking water is highly important due to the direct, continuous and intense exposure to arsenic. In fact, oral intake of arsenic-contaminated drinking-water is regarded as the most imperative route of arsenic exposure to human beings. It is recommended that in order to avoid arsenic toxicity, the average daily intake of arsenic via drinking water must not exceed 10 μg/L. The most commonly used risk assessment parameters include the hazard quotient (HQ), the health risk index (HRI), estimated daily intake (EDI), and life time cancer risk (ILTCR) (Xiong et al., 2014b ; Bakhat et al., 2017 ; Khalid et al., 2017a ; Mombo et al., 2017). If the values of HQ > 1.00 and CR > 10−6, there exists threat of cancer for such waters.

Arsenic pollution management in urban gardens : case study of pollution in Toulouse

18Gardens are tools to ecologically think and develop the cities (Dumat et al. (2016, a and b ; Menozzi, 2014 ; Ghosh, 2014 ; Hale et al., 2011) and perform interdisciplinary pedagogical innovations and pragmatic ecological transitions. In Europe, only marketed plants are regulated and just on some targeted inorganic pollutants such as lead, cadmium and mercury (EC, n° 466/2001). For such no regulated inorganic pollutant as arsenic, a specific quantitative assessment of health risks must then be carried out in order to scientifically access the human As exposure in the case of consumption of polluted vegetables (Ademe, 2014a et b). Assessing the potential sanitary risk induced by arsenic pollution needs to both quantify the productions in gardens and measure the As concentrations in consumed vegetables in order to precise the human exposure and finally to compare it with reference values. That multi-steps procedure can potentially induce uncertainties. To improve the precision on potential human exposure to pollutants in the gardens, we need to know the part of produced plants truly consumed by gardeners : as for instance, one part of the productions can be given to friends or the number of persons in the family can change. Further investigations are therefore needed to think about As regulation for consumed vegetables as that pollutant is widely observed at the global scale.

19Gardeners certainly come in the gardens to mind off and produce “healthy” vegetables. When informed on pollution in their gardens, legitimate concerns arise (Mombo et al., 2015 ; Austruy et al., 2013). Collective performed assessment and management of the risk can sometimes conduct to a new norm or regulation as exposed by Boutaric (2013). But, due to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in the transfer of substances in soil-plant systems, scientists can rarely spontaneously respond to the questions concerning pollutions (Goix et al. 2015 ; Dumat et al. 2013). Promoting operational collaboration such as “citizen science” between researchers and gardeners (Callon et al., 2002), is therefore a crucial environmental health issue as millions of citizens cultivate and consume vegetables in the world (Dumat et al., 2015). In the context of the national research “JASSUR project”, an interdisciplinary and participatory research study based both on agronomy, risk assessment and social sciences was conducted in the French collective garden localized in Castanet-Tolosan near Toulouse and impacted by arsenic pollution in wells used for vegetables irrigation (Dumat et al., 2015). Both lettuces (leafy vegetable) and carrots (root vegetable) were sampled. After peeling for carrots, vegetable samples were washed to remove potentially surface contamination and analyzed using the same procedure as Schreck et al. (2011). Although well water is heavily contaminated with arsenic, plants do not have arsenic levels above threshold velvet. This can be explained by the moderate flow of arsenic in the soil and a limited soil-plant transfer. Various solutions have been explored by gardeners to replace well water. Finally, it is the water of the near channel that is now used. The quantitative analysis of health risks sheds light on the fact that gardeners are not significantly exposed to arsenic when ingesting the plants produced. Moreover, to find solution in order to perform gardening activities in the polluted gardens, without human exposure to the arsenic, the gardeners organized several meeting and the problem of pollution induced social dynamic (Gilbert, 2003) and various ecological projects such as a pond or green manure plants.

Conclusions and perspectives

20Thus, environmental quality measurement (soil, water, air) upstream of the development of new gardens as well as the establishment of channels for amendments qualities (straw, compost ...) appear as certainly essential for credible public action and effectively promote the development of this form of agriculture. Discussing about metal concentration in vegetable requires some precautions : (i) to precise the unit and if the result is expressed in fresh or dry plant matter ; (ii) to define the sampling and analytical procedures used. Misinterpretations must be absolutely avoided because of decisions such as the prohibition of cultivating edible plants can then be taken.

21More broadly, our results illustrate the complexity of the interactions involved in the fate of pollutants in the ecosystems such as gardens with a high heterogeneity. How to reconcile scientific research thrust of the mechanisms involved and practical solutions to improve ecosystem services ? This is an important challenge to increase initiatives to bring science and society in this direction. It’s the case of the participatory research-formation network “Reseau-Agriville” (​) (Jacquemoud, 2015). They help to shape a favorable interface between knowledge and practice in the context of ecological transition at the global scale. Gardeners are very independent and therefore a priori reluctant to meet the imposed rules. However, when the central issue is health, they are mostly ready to mobilize to act in cooperation with other actors.

22The role of washing in reducing contamination of vegetables has been demonstrated by several experiments. It therefore seems important to advise the systematic washing of plants grown under the influence of atmospheric fallout, to reduce human exposure to pollutants from the environment. Peeling of root or tuber crops plays a role in reducing plant contamination by removing the rhinoderm, which is generally an area of pollutant uptake and diffusion. It is also important to advise the systematic peeling of cultivated plants to reduce human exposure to environmental pollutants. The quality of plants grown in gardens in urban areas is influenced by both root transfer and particulate transfer, respectively, in relation to the quality of the soil (with the various inputs such as water irrigation) and the atmosphere.


23The authors acknowledge ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Développement international, Sous-direction de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche France for sponsoring mobility grant under Bio-Asie programme “Arsenic assessment and removal from drinking water in Northern-Punjab Pakistan through building multinational research team”. Authors are also thankful to COMSATS IIT, Vehari for sponsoring a research grants “Assessment of arsenic levels and speciation in groundwater of Vehari district” and “Remediation of arsenic contaminated drinking water of Vehari-Pakistan using agricultural waste products” under the CRGP program.

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Shahid, M., T. Xiong, M. Castrec-Rouelle, T. Leveque et C. Dumat, 2013, Water extraction kinetics of metals, arsenic and dissolved organic carbon from industrial contaminated poplar leaves, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 25(12), pp. 2451-2459.

Shahid, M., C. Dumat, S. Khalid, N.K. Niazi et P.M.C. Antunes, 2016, Cadmium bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxification in soil-plant system. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Springer New York, New York, NY, pp. 1-65.

Shahid, M., C. Dumat, B. Pourrut, G. Abbas, N. Shahid et E. Pinelli, 2015a, Role of metal speciation in lead-induced oxidative stress to Vicia faba roots. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 62, pp. 448-454.

Shahid, M., C. Dumat, B. Pourrut, M. Sabir et E. Pinelli, 2014a, Assessing the effect of metal speciation on lead toxicity to Vicia faba pigment contents. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 144, Part B, pp. 290-297.

Shahid, M., C. Dumat, J. Silvestre et E. Pinelli, 2012a, Effect of fulvic acids on lead-induced oxidative stress to metal sensitive Vicia faba L. plant. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 48, pp. 689-697.

Shahid, M., M. Khalid, C. Dumat, S. Khalid, N.K. Niazi, M. Imran, I. Bibi, I. Ahmad, H.M. Hammad et R.A. Tabassum, 2017a, Arsenic Level and Risk Assessment of Groundwater in Vehari, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Exposure and Health, pp. 1-11.

Shahid, M., E. Pinelli et C. Dumat, 2012b, Review of Pb availability and toxicity to plants in relation with metal speciation ; role of synthetic and natural organic ligands. Journal of hazardous materials, 219-220, pp. 1-12.

Shahid, M., E. Pinelli, B. Pourrut, C. Dumat, 2014b, Effect of organic ligands on lead-induced oxidative damage and enhanced antioxidant defense in the leaves of Vicia faba plants, Journal of Geochemical Exploration.

Shahid, M., M. Rafiq, N.K. Niazi, C. Dumat, S. Shamshad, S. Khalid et I. Bibi, 2017b, Arsenic accumulation and physiological attributes of spinach in the presence of amendments : an implication to reduce health risk. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, pp. 16097–16106.

Shahid, M., M. Rafiq, N.K. Niazi, C. Dumat, S. Shamshad, S. Khalid et I. Bibi, 2017c, Arsenic accumulation and physiological attributes of spinach in the presence of amendments : an implication to reduce health risk. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, pp. 16097-16106.

Shahid, M., S. Shamshad, M. Rafiq, S. Khalid, I. Bibi, N.K. Niazi, C. Dumat, M.I. Rashid, 2017d, Chromium speciation, bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxification in soil-plant system : A review. Chemosphere, 178, pp. 513-533.

Shahid, N., Z. Zia, M. Shahid, H. Faiq Bakhat, S. Anwar, G. Mustafa Shah et M. Rizwan Ashraf, 2015b, Assessing Drinking Water Quality in Punjab, Pakistan. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 24.

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Shakoor, M.B., I. Bibi, N.K. Niazi, M. Shahid, M.F. Nawaz, A. Farooqi, R. Naidu, M.M. Rahman, G. Murtaza et A. Lüttge, 2018, The evaluation of arsenic contamination potential, speciation and hydrogeochemical behaviour in aquifers of Punjab, Pakistan. Chemosphere.

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Xiong, T.-T., T. Leveque, A. Austruy, S. Goix, E. Schreck, V. Dappe, S. Sobanska, Y. Foucault et C. Dumat, 2014a, Foliar uptake and metal(loid) bioaccessibility in vegetables exposed to particulate matter. Environmental Geochemistry and Health.

Xiong, T., C. Dumat, V. Dappe, H. Vezin, E. Schreck, M. Shahid, A. Pierart et S. Sobanska, 2017, Copper oxide nanoparticle foliar uptake, phytotoxicity, and consequences for sustainable urban agriculture. Environmental Science & Technology, 51, pp. 5242-5251.

Xiong, T., C. Dumat, A. Pierart, M. Shahid, Y. Kang, N. Li, G. Bertoni et C. Laplanche, 2016, Measurement of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables to improve human exposure assessments : field study of soil–plant–atmosphere transfers in urban areas, South China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, pp. 1-19.

Xiong, T., T. Leveque, M. Shahid, Y. Foucault, S. Mombo et C. Dumat, 2014b, Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles. Journal of environmental quality, 43, pp. 1593-1600.

Zia, Z., H.F. Bakhat, Z.A. Saqib, G.M. Shah, S. Fahad, M.R. Ashraf, H.M. Hammad, W. Naseem et M. Shahid, 2017, Effect of water management and silicon on germination, growth, phosphorus and arsenic uptake in rice. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 144, pp. 11-18.

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List of illustrations

Title Figure 1. Sources and speciation of arsenic in groundwater.
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Title Figure 2. Arsenic cycle in the environment.
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Title Figure 3. Chronic arsenic poisoning to human.
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Electronic reference

Muhammad Shahid, Camille Dumat, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Sana Khalid and Natasha, « Global scale arsenic pollution : increase the scientific knowledge to reduce human exposure », VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement [Online], Hors-série 31 | septembre 2018, Online since 05 September 2018, connection on 02 April 2020. URL : ; DOI :

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About the authors

Muhammad Shahid

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Vehari, Pakistan, courriel :

By this author

Camille Dumat

CERTOP, UMR5044, Université J. Jaurès - Toulouse II, Toulouse INP et Réseau-Agriville, France

By this author

Nabeel Khan Niazi

Institute of Soil and Environ. Sc., University of Agriculture, Pakistan and MARUM and Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Germany and Southern Cross GeoScience, Southern Cross University, Australia

Sana Khalid

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Vehari, Pakistan


Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Vehari, Pakistan

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Licence Creative Commons
Les contenus de VertigO sont mis à disposition selon les termes de la Licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d’Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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