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Within the framework of the peace agreement signed between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP) - the largest and oldest guerrilla group in the country – twenty-four Territorial Training and Reincorporation Spaces (known by the Spanish acronym ETCR) were created to temporarily house ex-combatants and to give them a space to set up productive projects as part of their reintegration process. Ex-combatants have opted for projects related to goods production (e.g., agriculture, textile, pisciculture, etc.). Some have also considered tourism as an attractive entrepreneurial path.
The paper offers an overview of tourism-related initiatives undertaken by ex-combatants from the different ETCRs by performing content analysis on more than 100 online publications pertaining to the initiatives. This was complemented with semi-structured interviews with people involved in the tourism projects or who visited the ETCR. The intention is to provide a first inventory of the existence of these projects, their present situation and the difficulties they encounter. The article initiates an assessment of their potential and feasibility in the future, and seeks to open up a research agenda for tourism as a reintegration strategy.

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1Many places across the world have endured the devastating consequences of violent conflict and have had to face the overwhelming challenge of creating a path towards stabilization and reconstruction. Among the different recovery strategies that have been tested in post-conflict scenarios, tourism has emerged as an attractive alternative to help restore the economic base of such areas due to its economic significance and its potential to generate jobs across a wide supply chain. Hence, tourism is often used as a lever for local development (Okazaki 2008; Stoffelen and Vanneste 2018; Zapata et al. 2011). It has also been proposed as a way to normalize social relations in the aftermath of violence, reinforcing the view of tourism not only as an industry but also as a social force (Buultjens et al. 2016; Causevic and Lynch 2011; Higgins-Desbiolles 2006; Novelli et al. 2012; Van Broeck 2019; Vanneste and Winter 2018).

2The increasing scholarly and policy interest in post-conflict tourism and its role in the reconstruction of war-torn areas has mainly focused on analyzing its adoption and implementation in communities shattered by violence, highlighting how tourism could help victims to rebuild their lives (Isaac et al. 2019). However, in the cases of intrastate conflict, much less attention has been given to the undertaking of tourism initiatives by ex-combatants (also considered victimizers) as a way to make their transition to civilian life.

3Due to the lack of academic output on the topic, an explorative study is needed to set the first stages of a research agenda on the participation of ex-combatants in tourism ventures. Based on the Colombian peace process with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People´s Army (known by the Spanish acronym FARC-EP), this paper aims at taking those first steps by focusing on ex-combatants who see tourism as a way to make a living. It should be noted that these initiatives are not documented systematically and it requires some creativity to fill in the data gaps.

4The findings of this paper rely on information gleaned from non-academic literature, mainly online media articles published between September 2017 and April 2019, that describe - to various degrees of completeness - how former guerrilla fighters are starting up tourism projects, and the context in which these initiatives are taking place. Given the exploratory nature of this work, the findings should be considered as a first approximation to the topic in the Colombian context and not as full evidence of economic and social reintegration of guerrilla members. Further research is needed to assess in depth the impacts and the reintegration outcomes of such initiatives. However, this paper opens up the debate on tourism as a lever for reintegration of former guerrilla members in Colombia.


5The disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) process for ex-combatants has become a mainstream procedure in post-conflict stabilisation programmes proposed by governments and international institutions (Muggah 2005; Muggah and O’Donnell 2015; Theidon 2007) in their efforts to provide the conditions to pursue recovery and development strategies in conflict-affected countries (IDDRS 2006).

6According to the Integrated Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standards of the United Nations (IDDRS 2006), the DDR process encompasses four stages that follow a sequential order. Firstly, in the disarmament stage, the weapons of combatants and the civilian population are collected and disposed of through an arms management program. Secondly, the demobilization stage occurs when active combatants are discharged from the armed group and are placed in temporary settlements. Thirdly, in the reinsertion stage ex-combatants receive short-term material/financial assistance to cover basic needs and to support them through the immediate transition caused by the demobilization process. Finally, the aim is to reach the reintegration stage, a long-term process in which ex-combatants acquire civilian status and find a sustainable source of income so that they and their families can be involved in society.

7DDR programmes recognise that removing weapons from the hands of fighters and dismantling their organization is certainly a step forward in improving security but it is by no means enough to achieve peace. The biggest challenges lie in ensuring that the former combatants can reintegrate into society, and in preventing them from taking up arms again (Berdal and Ucko 2009). Unsuccessful reintegration of fighters invariably means a failed peace process and often leads to renewed violence and crime (Edloe 2007), which in turn can damage tourism and the general economy as proven by the case of Mozambique (Alusala and Dye 2010).

8A successful DDR process should not be taken for granted (Muggah 2005). The path to full reintegration is a long and complex one. On the one hand, ex-combatants need to adapt to new social norms and schemes. They need to develop skills to enter a market economy where knowing how to use a weapon is of no use to earn a living. They need to face justice and provide reparations to their victims. On the other hand, communities are not always willing to welcome ex-combatants, even if its members are not direct victims of the violence. Protracted conflicts often leave a legacy of wounds and prejudices that reinforce stigmatisation and exclusion, making it even more difficult for demobilized fighters to be considered legitimate members of society (IDDRS 2006). Moreover, the rejection they might generate in some groups (e.g. victims, other illegal armed groups, army, etc.), poses security threats to ex-combatants’ lives, who, without weapons and the protection of their comrades, become more exposed and vulnerable to violent retaliation (Nussio 2011).

9Given the many obstacles that could hinder a reintegration process, it becomes vital to accompany demobilized combatants in their transition to civilian status. For example, when one considers that for these programmes to be truly successful and lay the groundwork for increasing social cohesion and reconciliation they should be addressed not only to ex-combatants but also to the receiving communities (Kaplan and Nussio 2018; Özerdem 2012), then social reintegration programs could help by promoting encounters with community members. Short-term strategies for economic reintegration could involve cash allowances and monthly subsidies after demobilization (Knight and Özerdem 2004). Long-term strategies could focus on preparing ex-combatants to enter the job market or to set up their businesses so that they can rely upon sustainable livelihoods once the temporary money transfers end. It is at this stage of long-term social and economic reintegration strategies that tourism could enter into the equation.

10Firstly, tourism is an industry that has the capacity to stimulate the local economy and, when managed well, can include and benefit the most vulnerable groups (Ashley and Roe 2002; Chok et al. 2007). Secondly, tourism is very much embedded in a value chain of goods and service providers, which stimulates networking and co-creation (Adiyia et al. 2017). Thirdly, tourism as an exponent of the experience economy is supported by a number of assets, including intangible elements: oral stories related to the conflict, the verbalization of the unspoken, a dialogue initiated on interpretation (Gonzalez-Ruibal 2007). Yet, it is far more challenging to ensure that tourism actually serves the least favored in post-conflict settings rather than become a mechanism to increase polarization and stigmatization of minorities, as happened in the fomer Yugoslavia (Naef 2013).

11That said, there may be instances where vulnerable and stigmatized individuals, such as demobilized combatants, could find a way to reintegrate through tourism during a post-conflict transition. With their knowledge of the local territory, and specifically of those places that have only been explored by armed groups, ex-combatants could help open up areas for tourism. Furthermore, not only is the tourism narrative enriched by this local knowledge but also by personal stories. Many visitors seek a deeper understanding of the people and the ‘sense of place’ moulded by the historical events.

12Although academic work looking at the involvement of ex-fighters in tourism is not extensive, there are a number of examples of reintegration through the tourism industry. This was the case in Indonesia, where demobilized fighters of the Free Aceh Movement guide hiking journeys through the jungle while sharing their stories of the conflict (Webb 2008; Westrik 2015). Former fighters in Guatemala also saw an opportunity to earn a living through tour guiding and started their own eco-tourism project (Janzen 2014), while in El Salvador, members of the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front now guide tourists through mountainous landscapes that are part of a Route of Peace (Rogers 2009). Demobilized fighters can also contribute indirectly to developing the tourism sector, as was the case in Namibia, where they became members of Anti-Poaching units, which locate minefields and make areas safe for a wider public (McMullin 2005).

13Tourism projects are not always developed by just one particular group of ex-combatants. Antagonistic groups can cooperate in a common objective and develop a product that offers a more balanced perspective of the conflict. A good example is Northern Ireland, where tourists can walk in the neighborhoods where the Troubles took place while listening to the stories of former paramilitary soldiers, both Protestant and Catholic (Causevic and Lynch 2011; Langfitt 2017).

14Nevertheless, combatants do not have to demobilize in order to tell their stories. Tourism can also offer a platform for the sharing of political discourse in the context of a conflict, as in the case of the Zapatista movement in Mexico. Tourists from all over the world visit the State of Chiapas, attracted by the struggle of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation - a phenomenon that is known as Zapatourism (Babb 2011; Klein 2007). Of course, it is a thin line between a platform for storytelling from a particular point of view and a forum for transformed and even manipulated memory (Nora 1989).


15Tourism has been proposed as a way to support the reintegration of ex-combatants in several parts of the world, and the idea was already broached in Colombia long before the signing of the peace agreement with the FARC. In 2000, a speaker at the 46th Assembly of COTELCO (Colombia’s hotel association) put forward the idea of guerrillas playing a role in tourism by, for example, becoming nature tour guides or contributing to renovating the tourism infrastructure (Van Broeck 2008). In 2015, Rafael Gallo, in his position as president of the Costa Rican Network of Private Natural Reserves, suggested that demobilized FARC members could work in areas related to nature conservation and tourist guiding (Pardo 2015). After the peace agreement, the idea became much more concrete.

A. The concluded disarmament and demobilization stages

16On 24 November 2016, after four years of negotiations, the largest and oldest guerrilla group in the country, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People´s Army (known by the Spanish acronym FARC-EP) and the Colombian government signed a peace agreement to stop an armed confrontation that dates back to the 1960s. The dismantling of the FARC military structures represents the end of the most influential and longest-running armed insurgency in the Western Hemisphere, and contributes to the conclusion of an ongoing internal conflict that has cost more than 200,000 lives, 81% of them being civilians (Grupo de Memoria Histórica 2013).

17Signing this peace agreement was not easy. There were previous attempts to have peace dialogues with the FARC in the 1980s and 1990s, which did not reach any significant outcome other than prolonging and intensifying the war. With the change of government in 2010, the option of returning to the negotiating table was reopened but, by then, the conditions were different. The FARC was weakened and its leaders realised that a military victory was becoming increasingly unfeasible. As a result of this negotiation process, the FARC and the government of Juan Manuel Santos signed the peace agreement in Havana, Cuba. About 7,000 FARC members decided to lay down their arms in a historical moment for the country (Cosoy 2017). The Socio-economic Census on the FARC showed that the majority of the ex-combatants are of rural origin (66%), know how to read and write (90%) and are mainly interested in carrying out agricultural activities (60%) (Universidad Nacional de Colombia 2017).

18To guarantee the disarmament and demobilization processes, twenty-six rural areas spread across the national territory were designated in 2017 to temporarily assemble the demobilized insurgents so that they could surrender their weapons and begin their transition towards legality. These zones, known as Transitional Rural Normalization Zones (known by the Spanish acronym ZVTN), were intended to host exclusively demobilized guerrillas. Civilian populations were not authorized to enter the area. At this point, ex-combatants could still access their weapons, which were located in containers monitored by the United Nations. Once the disarmament process concluded and the containers were removed from the camps, the government decided to extend the duration of the ZVTNs, which were initially intended to last for only 180 days.

B. The ongoing reinsertion and reintegration stages

  • 1 The ARN is not the first entity in Colombia that coordinates reintegration of ex-combatants. Previo (...)
  • 2 Although there is still uncertainty about the future of the ETCRs, since their legal recognition en (...)

19As of 15 August 2017, the ZVTNs are renamed Territorial Training and Reincorporation Spaces (known by the Spanish acronym ETCR) to give continuity to the demobilization process and to put more emphasis on the reinsertion and reintegration stages. The national entity in charge of supporting the process of reintegration of FARC members into civilian life is the Agency for Reincorporation and Normalization1 (ARN), which is also in charge of the administration of the ETCRs. Two ZVTNs were closed, leaving twenty-four ETCRs with legal recognition until August 20192.

20To prevent these places from becoming a means to isolate ex-combatants, civilians now have access to the camps, families are allowed to live together, and people from surrounding communities are invited to attend the training and educational courses that are offered to the ETCR residents, following a model of community reintegration.

  • 3 This percentage represents around 750,000 COP or 200 euros per month.

21Regarding economic reintegration, two measures for short-term economic stabilization came into force with the formalization of the ETCRs, as stated in the peace agreement. The first one is the right of every former guerilla to receive a one-time subsidy of around 550 euros (2 million COP) during the reintegration process. The second is the right to receive a basic monthly income equal to 90% of the Legal Minimum Wage for 24 months unless the person has other contractual bonds that generate income3. With this basic salary, several demobilized guerrillas have started business projects in the ETCRs. The long-term strategies for economic reintegration include the opportunity to receive academic and technical training and support from entrepreneurial initiatives, which is highly relevant in the Colombian context as 96% of the demobilized guerrillas expressed their wish to become entrepreneurs and not employees (Colombia2020 2019).

  • 4 The CNR is composed of two members of the national government and two members of the FARC-EP, repre (...)
  • 5 The requirements to verify viability for approval of financial support for productive projects can (...)

22As stipulated in the peace agreement, ex-combatants can receive additional financial support from the national government and the international community to undertake productive projects or housing projects individually or collectively. The projects are formulated by the ex-guerrillas with the support of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism (MinCIT) and are evaluated by the National Reincorporation Council4 (CNR). This committee evaluates the feasibility of the projects and is in charge of approving and disbursing financial aid for the projects that meet the technical, financial and legal requirements stipulated by the ARN5. Those who are approved receive financial and technical support for its implementation (8 million COP or about 2200 euros per person involved).

23The majority of the projects that have been approved so far are in the agricultural sector, wholesale and retail trade, and manufacturing industries. Projects in the service sector, including tourism, have been less likely to be approved. Nevertheless, the notion that ex-combatants could become involved in tourism was widely accepted (Bocanegra and Symmes 2016), and this was supported after the peace agreement when 24% of the former guerillas themselves showed interest in becoming a tourist guide in protected areas (Universidad Nacional de Colombia 2017).

24However, accessing available support can be a bumpy process. According to official ARN figures, as of February 2019, 22 collective projects and 162 individual projects (in which nearly 1,600 people were involved) have been approved, but over half of them are still waiting for the disbursement of the money (ARN personal report, 2019). Considering that there are over 13,000 people in the process of reintegrating (ex-guerrillas and their families), this means that only 12% of the population are linked to a project that has secured approval, and, of course, even less who are attached to a tourism project.


25Infomation on ex-combatant start-up tourism projects started to appear in late 2017. To obtain insights into tourism-related initiatives in the different ETCRs, we performed content analysis on online newspaper articles, official documents, websites, online videos and social media (together referred to as “items”) that mentioned tourism, ETCR, ex-combatants, and reintegration in Colombia.

26We consulted more than one hundred items. This research cannot pretend to be all-inclusive, but our search method does guarantee that major information was not overlooked. The information retrieved is obviously limited by Google’s parameters. We tried to bypass some biases by using a variety of keywords, in English and Spanish; by going as far as the twentieth page of Google search results; and by using VPNs to reset the country we were in. We consulted items published in Colombia as well as internationally.

27It was easier to find search topics that had caught the attention of the press and were multiplied on different news sites than those that were only picked up by one or two journalists. With this in mind, we had to try to exclude copies, since news articles that had garnered attention were republished by the author or by other media channels, many times without reference to the original article. We did include articles in the analysis that received media attention if they had been reworked by another author to include additional information.

28We were able to collect information about thirteen ETCRs, in which either ex-combatants attended a tourism-related course or where tourism initiatives led to a productive project. In Annex 1, these ETCRs are listed. According to some articles (see Pachón 2019), the United Nations Verification Mission in Colombia identified fourteen initiatives. But there is no official list and this figure could not be verified, nor could these initiatives be compared to the ones found in our research.

29In Annex 1, we specify the number of items found on each of the 13 ETCRs. Rather than focus on the numbers as such, our aim is to give an indication of the relative importance that the initiative was given. The content of the consulted items was analysed for information on the history of the project, the type of tourism proposed, the status of formalization, the dynamics with the local community, and the help and support from different entities.

30We are aware that the information obtained might be biased, incomplete, only temporarily valid or containing errors. We tried to triangulate some of the information before inclusion with semi-structured interviews, but this was not always possible. We interviewed seven people, three of whom collaborated on a project as outsiders (non-ex-combatants) and four who spent some time at an ETCR with a tourism project (a visitor, a researcher, a fotographer and a journalist). None of them are what we could consider a tourist, but rather a privileged witness. Their insights from their experience in the ETCRs complemented the findings of the desk research.

31Annex 2 shows a map that presents the location of the different projects.


  • 6 The ETCR Vidrí in Vigía del Fuerte (Antioquia) disappeared in the list of ETCR published in 2019 (A (...)

32As of April 2019, tourism-related projects are either in an early or more developed stage in the following 10 ETCRs: La Plancha (Antioquia), Agua Bonita and Miravalle (Caquetá), Tierra Grata (Cesar), Pondores (La Guajira), Buena Vista and La Reforma (Meta), and La Fila (Tolima). In the municipality of San José de Guaviare (Guaviare) both ETCRs (Las Colinas and Charra) are involved in tourism projects. While the preliminary project proposal in ETCR Vidrí6 never grew into a real project, and in two ETCRs (Filipinas and El Oso) there was only a training course in tourism offered to ex-combatants, we include them in our list and analysis.

33Most media attention was addressed to the ETCR Miravalle (Annex 1 – number of items) due to a rafting project that caught the attention of international journals, and on the projects in ETCR Buena Vista, where the construction of a hotel named The Green House (Casa Verde) was envisaged in 2018. Although the project never took off, the ETCR Buena Vista was included in a recently inaugurated eco-corridor. Other initiatives that received media attention, albeit to a lesser extent than the abovementioned, are the projects in the ETCRs of Tierra Grata (Cesar), Pondores (La Guajira) and La Fila (Tolima).

  • 7 When ZVTN become ETCR.

34As early as August 20177, tourism as a potential productive project was being discussed in several ETCRs. A team from the University of Antioquia (with an interest in environmental issues and tourism) visited the former ETCR Vidrí to learn about the territory, meet representatives of the different communities and the ex-combatants, and develop proposals for community-based ecotourism.

35It was possible to ascertain from proposals, newspaper articles and interviews that initial steps for a tourism project were taken in the Buena Vista, Pondores and La Reforma ETCRs. In the Miravalle and Tierra Grata ETCRs, ideas for tourism projects started surfacing in 2017, while the projects only appeared in the media in mid-2018. In other ETCRs, the idea of investing in tourism seems to have come much later. The most recent project found was the one in ETCR La Plancha, which started in 2019.

A. The Tourist Experience

36Almost all ETCRs offer or are planning to offer a very similar tourist experience (see Table 1). Firstly, activities such as hiking and trekking in nature are the core element since ETCRs are usually located in a rural environment. Trails and routes are constructed around the camps so that the landscape, flora and fauna can be explored. One interviewee mentioned that subscribing to tourism intiatives seemed natural for some ex-combatants since they know the territory and are the protagonists of their stories (M. Rey 2019, personal communication, 18 February).

37Secondly, tourists should be able to learn more about the life of the ex-combatants during the years of conflict. Some ETCRs recreate camps where they place a shack surrounded by canvas (called a cambuche) so that tourists can see how they lived. In some ETCRs, such as in Pondores and Tierra Grata, staying overnight in these replica camps is part of the experience. In other ETCRs, visitors can sleep in rooms, available for guests. The construction of a hotel is being considered in some cases.

38Tourists can also learn how guerillas cooked, sample what they ate, and enjoy the evening entertainment and music that ex-combatants called the “cultural hour” when they lived in the jungle. Such experiential activites are present in most of the ongoing projects. In several ETCRs, objects related to the FARC days are presented in museum-like settings, known as “houses of memory”.

39Thirdly, the stay in ETCRs provides opportunities to talk about the peace agreements and the reintegration process and to visit other ETCR productive projects. All the projects can be categorized as community-based tourism, ecotourism, experiential tourism or historical tourism, with special emphasis on the representation of the past and messages about conflict and peace.

40So far, only two ETCRs seem to offer a different experience to the others: ETCR Miravalle (Meta), which has gone down the road of adventure tourism, with ex-combatants trained and certified to lead rafting expeditions on the local river; and ETCR Buena Vista, which is part of a larger eco-corridor project. The latter offers tourists the chance to attend folkloric dances in the surrounding municipalities, for example. But in general, there is little diversity in what they have to offer the tourist.

41This form of experiential tourism raises the question of how narratives of the conflict are being managed. While some tourists may be averse to the idea, others might be interested in hearing the story of the former guerrillas. Criticisms have been raised, describing this type of tourism as “a human zoo”, a voyeuristic enterprise, or as “akin to ‘terrorwash’” with its one-sided approach to understanding the conflict (Crossan 2018). The interviews also reflected this dichotomy between an opportunity to listen to “the other side of the story” and the danger of commodifying the war and using tourism to present polarizing narratives that could even damage broader peacebuilding processes. For instance, an international visitor to the ETCR Miravalle remarked: ‘It seems good for foreigners because of the idea of going to a “dangerous” place with “dangerous” people, thinking “I am really cool”, but for Colombian society, it might seem that they are just making money out of the [bad] things they have done’ (Seker 2019). With this in mind, a Colombian researcher stated: ‘Not everyone agrees with the idea of [ex-combatants] telling just their version of the story to visitors. Parts of the population feel uncomfortable with that way of addressing the collective memory, which could generate new forms of conflict […] and even more when people who are not familiar at all with the Colombian history visit these camps, a bit with a morbid attitude, feeling like they are Rambo because they can take a picture with FARC members, unaware of the great pain generated by the internal armed conflict’ (Bonilla 2019).

Table 1: Planned, proposed or realized tourism projects in ETCR


Proposed – Planned - Realized Tourism Product

ETR La Plancha

Tourism only emerged in the media in March 2019. The proposed tourism activities focus on “historic memory, reconciliation and environmental conservation”, and include:

A reconstructed guerrilla camp

The construction of a “Casa de la Memoria” (House of Memory): similar to a museum, it displays photographs that illustrate the transition from armed conflict to peace

Walking and hiking trails that explore the natural beauty of the area and promote conversations about the wildlife and flora.

Confecciones La Montaña, another productive project located in this ETCR, produces bags, clothing and accessories that can be purchased as souvenirs

ETCR Vidrí

In August 2017, the ETCR (then still known as ZVTN) was visited for the purpose of becoming familiar with the territory and the players in order to develop a proposal for community-based ecotourism. The proposal was in a very early stage of development and the project never got off the ground. As of February 2019, this ETCR no longer exists

ETCR Filipinas

Several ex-combatants took the ABC Turismo course. No further information about specific projects was found

ETCR Agua Bonita

It would seem that at weekends, tourists were already visiting what was considered “the first village of ex-combatants” in 2017. The ETCR was the setting in 2018 for a mural festival “Agua Bonita se Pinta de Colores”. In December 2018, “social tourism” was mentioned and, in an undated document, “ecotourism” was referred to. No further information was provided by either publication, and no other information about a specific project was found

ETCR Miravalle

Rafting experiences on the Rio Pato are the core proposed tourist attraction.
In the future, they are considering offering trekking, wildlife watching, canyoning, rappel and other adventure sports linked to the Pato River, the National Natural Park in the Cordillera, and the jungle that surrounds it.
Currently, tourists can stay overnight in the ETCR, where they can visit the other productive projects and the surroundings. It appears that a bioclimatic restaurant and several ecological cabins are under construction

ETCR Tierra Grata

The proposal is based on replicating a guerrilla camp and recreating guerilla life during war (such as the hora cultural).

There are murals in the ETCR that depict the history of the FARC, and a memory house/museum is planned.

Activities are offered in the surrounding nature, such as hiking/trekking along trails, like La Ruta por la Paz (Route for Peace), where they tell the story of how the conflict was resolved.

There are also other productive projects in the ETCR that can be visited.

A stay in the camp costs 125,000 pesos a day, meals and activities included

ETCR Las Colinas

A replica of the (former guerrilla) camps is planned (for experiential tourism), together with hiking routes

ETCR Charras

A replica of the (former guerrilla) camps is planned (for experiential tourism), together with hiking routes

ETCR Pondores

A visit to Campamento Ecoturístico Ruta Fariana offers:

Replica guerrilla camp, recreation of guerrilla life in the jungle, “en el monte”

ETCR + projects

Murals + House of Memory => “historical memory project”

Oral storytelling by ex-combatants

Trekking to Serranía del Perijá. At present, they are working on designing the routes

Agendas containing illustrations by a local artist of the history of the guerrillas were on sale as souvenirs

ETCR Buena Vista

In this ETCR different proposals were launched.

(Phase1) The central idea was to build a hotel, which would be called “Casa Verde” (The Green House), a name chosen in reference/homage to the former FARC headquarters, located about 20 kms from the ETCR. The hotel would also house a museum.
Further, there would be a replica of a former camp where visitors could “live as an actual guerrilla did for 24 hours”.
Tourists would have the opportunity to visit the actual ETCR and its productive projects, and to participate in ecotourism.

(Phase 2) By late 2018, it would seem there was a very rudimentary hotel/accommodation in place. According to our interviewee, there was no longer any mention of the former project/name of Casa Verde. The project continued to focus on the construction of a replica of a former camp, visits to the ETCR and its productive projects, and ecotourism related activities.

(Phase3) The ETCR Buena Vista is integrated within the ecotourism corridor between Mesetas and Uriba: 12 nature trails totaling 175 kms, suitable for hiking, bird watching and adventure sports. Other activities can also be incorporated, such as folkloric dance performances in the surrounding municipalities.

The ex-combatants act as tourist guides, and recount their personal stories. Food and accommodation is offered in the ETCR. Currently, tourists can stay in basic rooms but the dream of a hotel (now referred to as an Ecohotel) is still very much alive.

There are also other productive projects to be visited while there

ETCR La Reforma

The tourism experience consists of

Experiencing life as a guerrillero: replica camp

Nature tourism

Visiting a museum that recounts the story

ETCR La Fila

The former control post is now “operated” by a pair of mannequins wearing FARC uniforms, in its new guise as a museum, the Campamiento de la Memoria Fariana.

Tourists can visit the ETCR and its other productive projects.

The ETCR has a hostel. An overnight stay costs $ 15,000 pesos


The ABC Turismo course, which took place at this ETCR, was the only reference we could find to an interest in tourism

B. Formalization of the project

42Once a structured project is in place, an important and crucial step is to situate it in a legal framework. The construction of cooperatives is often a first step to becoming officially registered. In the case of ETCR Pondores, the Cooperativa Compazcol was founded to stimulate various reintegration projects, including the tourism initiative. For ETCR La Reforma, the Cooperativa TurismoEcoFArc was in the process of legal formation in December 2018.

43It is unclear what became of the Cooperativa Gran Paz in Buena Vista, Meta, which was mentioned in connection with the earlier Casa Verde project. We suspect it has been replaced with the Cooperativa Catypsa, apparently the predecessor of a travel agency with a similar name, mentioned in the most recent articles about this ETCR.

44The next step is the creation of an organization responsible for managing tourism, in line with the legal requirements, and the acquest of required certifications, insurance, etc. At present, the Colombian government is tightening its rules on tourism, which means that the requirements for the formalization of tourist companies are becoming increasingly strict and numerous. This creates entry barriers for new ventures within local communities (community-based projects) like those of the FARC, since licenses, certifications and other obligations demand time and money.

45Nevertheless, three ETCRs have become legally constituted tourism entreprises. As previously mentioned, a travel agency with the name Catypsa Expeditions was founded at ETCR Buena Vista. At the end of 2017, Caguán Expedition was created at ETCR Miravalle, and in June 2018, Tierra Grata Eco Tours S.A.S started at ETCR Tierra Grata. All three entreprises are registered at the National Tourism Registry8. Caguán Expedition is an officially recognized SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise), has several quality certifications, and the rafting guides are certified by the International Rafting Federation (IRF).

46To become a recognized player in the tourism sector, cooperatives need to enter the value chain, which implies that potential visitors/tourists can find information, either on websites, social media or during tourism events, while the organizations are represented by agencies that promote the product. These are issues related to strategic alliances and marketing. Many projects that offer a tourist product cannot be traced, do not have a website, and are not present on social media, making it hard for tourists to organize a trip.

47Some projects have succeeded in gaining visibility. Caguán Expedition had the opportunity to participate at the annual Anato’s (Asociación Colombiana de Agencias de Viajes y Turismo) trade fair, Vitrina Turística. Its rafting experiences are promoted on Awake Travel’s platform and by Caquetá Adventure. Participation in the World Rafting Championship helped to raise the project’s profile. Since the ETCR Buena Vista is included in the eco-corridor Mesetas-Uribe, it will benefit from larger marketing and promotion campaigns, and enjoy the typical advantages of clustering and route or trail development

48Although the project in La Fila has received little media attention and there is no knowledge of any legalized entreprise, there is hope for the future as Justice Travel passes by Icononzo (Tolima; ETCR La Fila) on a fourteen-day tour through the country.

C. Support to grow

49An idea is the nub of an enterprise, but it is only the start. Financial leverage, technical guidance and support are necessary factors in creating a profitable startup. Many small businesses set up by ex-combatants are less than successful because they lack these assets (Moloney 2019).

50Besides receiving a basic income that they can invest, former guerrilla members are also eligible for funds from the government and international organizations. This seed capital, as mentioned above, is vital. There has been criticism in the media about the lengthy process of obtaining money. Projects must be evaluated and approved by a commission in order to access the resources. In addition, the procedure for the disbursement of resources is not instantaneous, so there are approved projects that are still waiting for startup money.

51Insofar as we have ascertained, there is evidence of only two CNR-approved tourism projects that have actually received financial support, that is the one in ETCR Charras (Presidencia de la República and ARN 2018) and the one in ETCR Tierra Grata (ARN 2018). In the first case, financial support appears to have been given through the UN Post-Conflict Multi-Partner Trust Fund for Colombia. In the second case, the ex-combatants of Tierra Grata received aproximately 34 million COP from the UNDP to refurbish their camp and to build several caletas to host tourists. The fact that projects can rely on support from the UN Verification Mission is very important for their credibility as a more consolidated tourism project.

  • 9 Despite good intentions, several interviewees testified that some courses were not adapted to the r (...)

52A training course, entitled ABC of Tourism, conducted at the ETCRs is often mentioned. Additional courses dealing with enterpreneurship (Estructuracion de Negocios), or, more specifically, with tourism enterprises (Desarrollo de proyectos ecoturísticos; Mesa y Bar) have also been offered to ETCR9 residents.

53There are two ETCRs for which international interest, support and funding have been particularly important. The ETCR Miravalle received support from, among others, the SENA and their Rural Entrepreneurship Fund (Fondo Emprende Rural), but it was only after the International Rafting Federation sent instructors from Rios Tropicales (Costa Rica) and donated material that the project took off. In its first development phase, the ETCR Buena Vista benefited from help from the Colombian Trade Association of Tourism Industry (CONFETUR) to build up support for the nascent tourism industry. Later, tourism development was further boosted by the program Environments for Peace (Ambientes para la Paz), which was financed by the Norwegian government.

D. Civilian/ex-combatants dynamics

54Very little information was found about the participants involved in the programs. There are certain ex-combatants – seemingly spokesmen or people in charge – who are named in various newspaper articles and interviews. But in recent years, some of the ex-combatants have left the camps and are therefore no longer connected to these productive projects, leaving other ex-combatants to take over their responsibilities.

55It is worth noting that ex-combatants and civilians from nearby villages work side by side on some of the projects. One example is the project in ETCR Vidrí, which was conceived to involve the six neighboring Afro-Descent communities. Among the rafting guides in ETCR Miravalle, several are from the local community. Moreover, several civilians have taken up roles as tour guides alongside ex-combatants, for example in ETCR Tierra Grata.

56In the ETCR Buena Vista, the local community and tour operators were invited to participate side by side with ex-combatants in workshops organized by CONFETUR. The idea was that they get to know each other and that employment opportunities would be offered to both ex-combatants and the farming community. This ETCR is now included in the Paraisos Ocultos corridor along with neighboring municipalities, and this may well lead to future economic and social benefits for all. In addition, Catypsa Travel Agency brings together one hundred partner-members, seventy of which belong to the municipalities (representatives from the Juntas de Acción Comunal, various cooperatives, and guilds) and thirty ex-combatants. Moreover, there are other cooperatives, such as Cooperativa TurismoEco Farc (ETCR La Reforma), and organizations, such as Caguán Expedition (ETCR Miravalle), that have a mixed membership of ex-combatants, peasants, and other non-ex-combatants.


57The reintegration of ex-combatants into civilian life is a key part of peacebuilding in areas that have suffered from an armed conflict. In this article, we have illustrated how the demobilized FARC combatants in Colombia are looking to tourism to support their transition to civil life and reintegrate back into society.

58Specifically, we have focused on presenting tourism initiatives led by former guerrillas in several of the places where they have settled since the signing of the peace agreement in 2016. Given the lack of data about such tourism initiatives, and the limited discussion on this subject in the academic field, we employed a combination of tactics to explore these projects: we reviewed online secondary sources and conducted semi-structured interviews for triangulation purposes. We presented insights about proposals and current developments, but we are aware that in such a dynamic environment, our results have a temporal limitation. Our findings should therefore be taken as indicative elements that show certain trends rather than as a precise report or state-of-the-art research piece on tourist initiatives developed in the ETCRs.

59We found that several tourism initiatives were launched by ex-combatants, and several more are still on the way. Some are developing while others are more consolidated, as reflected in media coverage. On the positive side, it should be noted that productive projects in general, and tourism projects in particular, have received institutional support at the local, national and international levels. Further, a positive attitude from the ex-combatants to tourism as a viable option for making a living is clearly present. Nonetheless, we also observed several negative aspects. The sustainability of these projects is threatened by serious impediments, such as a lack of financial resources, inadequate or insufficient technical assistance, and a supply issue: the projects need to move beyond a limited niche market if they are to be competitive. Moreover, the question of whether the current visitors can actually be considered as tourists is another point of contention.

60Although one feels optimistic about the opportunity to grow incoming tourism, this type of niche tourism may not be sufficient to generate a consistent source of income for ex-combatants. Generally, these tourism projects are initiatives that parallel with agricultural or livestock activities, for example. For this reason, we cannot yet claim that tourism is a major contributor to the economic and social reintegration of ex-combatants in the Colombian case. It is an idea that reflects opportunities, but it is still too early to measure its impacts.

61The Colombian context also poses another challenge: the process of reintegration still lingers in the midst of violence. Although we speak of a post-conflict period after the signing of the agreement with the FARC, the Colombian armed conflict has not definitively ceased. Dissidents of the FARC and the paramilitary still continue an armed confrontation. Additionally, there is no progress in peace negotiations with another active guerrilla group (ELN). This environment of insecurity worries the demobilized combatants who fear retaliation against them and against the people helping them who are not related to the FARC.

62Another challenge is social reintegration, which is essential for sustainable peace to be achieved. There is still grief and open wounds that need time to heal. We cannot expect immediate forgiveness or a disposition to forget the past. The fact that a peace deal was signed does not mean that the whole of society is willing to receive, coexist or work with ex-combatants, let alone reconcile with them.

63By raising these questions, this article contributes to the academic discussion on tourism as a tool for reintegration in areas that have suffered from armed conflict. Future research avenues could focus on the type of tourists that are attracted by these types of projects and how they perceive the experience (the demand side). The same applies to the supply side, which should be analysed and monitored in greater depth to complement our document analysis.

64We hope that this article provides a baseline to open a research agenda for a myriad of topics that require much more attention from scholars interested in the role of tourism in post-conflict scenarios, as well as from scholars interested in the theorization of reintegration processes and outcomes. Specifically, we see an opportunity to initiate an interdisciplinary dialogue with the emerging field of DDR research. Tourism scholars can contribute to a better understanding of how tourism can assist the reintegration of former combatants through extended, fieldwork-based analysis of the impacts of such projects on economic and social reintegration. Moreover, it would be interesting to monitor the extent to which tourism initiatives undertaken by ex-combatants meaningfully contribute to the creation of bridges in communities, while taking into account the fact that certain narratives and discourses can fuel conflict as well. Such analysis could greatly contribute to the debate on tourism as a tool for peace, reconciliation, and reintegration.

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Annex 1: ETCR with references to tourism projects




Items mentioned between Sep 2017 and Apr 2019 (N: 111)



ETCR La Plancha



Vigía del Fuerte

ETCR Vidrí (Discontinued)




ETCR Filipinas




ETCR Agua Bonita



San Vicente de Caguán

ETCR Miravalle



La Paz

ETCR Tierra Grata/
San José de Oriente10



San José de Guaviare

ETCR Las Colinas



San José de Guaviare

ETCR Charras


La Guajira


ETCR Pondores




ETCR Buena Vista/
La Guajira11



Vista Hermosa

ETCR La Reforma




ETCR La Fila






Annex 2: Location of the ETCRs including those with tourism projects.

Annex 2: Location of the ETCRs including those with tourism projects.

Annex 2 shows a map that presents the location of the different projects.
La Plancha: click here
Vidrí: click here
Filipinas: click here
Agua Bonita: click here
Miravalle: click here
Tierra Grata: click here
Las Colinas: click here
Charras: click here
Pondores: click here
Buena Vista – La Guajira: click here
La Fila – SPA: click here
La Reforma – SPA: click here
El Oso – SPA: click here

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1 The ARN is not the first entity in Colombia that coordinates reintegration of ex-combatants. Previously, there were other entities that supported DDR processes, including the General Directorate for Reintegration and the Colombian Agency for the Reintegration of persons and groups raised in arms (ACR). These entities no longer exist.

2 Although there is still uncertainty about the future of the ETCRs, since their legal recognition ends in August 2019, most of them seem to be continuing. According to La Silla Vacia ( 2019), only two of the ETCRs in which we found references to tourism seem to be under threat of disappearing, being Charras (Guaviare) and Filipinas (Arauca).

3 This percentage represents around 750,000 COP or 200 euros per month.

4 The CNR is composed of two members of the national government and two members of the FARC-EP, representatives from government entities, social organizations and international organizations, and the territorial reintegration councils.

5 The requirements to verify viability for approval of financial support for productive projects can be found in Resolution No. 3207 issued by the ARN (Agencia para la Reincorporation y la Normalización). It is emphasized that the projects cannot be related to surveillance activities, security services, the manufacture or use of weapons or any illegal activity. The project must have a valid commercial registry, except for agricultural projects, which only require a certificate signed by the competent authority stating the existence of the economic activity.

6 The ETCR Vidrí in Vigía del Fuerte (Antioquia) disappeared in the list of ETCR published in 2019 (ARN).

7 When ZVTN become ETCR.

8 On 13 May 2019 the data base from RNT was consulted (

9 Despite good intentions, several interviewees testified that some courses were not adapted to the reality of the ex-combatants or the circumstances of the ETCR.

10 This project is known by the name Tierra Grata instead of the vereda San José de Oriente

11 This project is known by the name Buena Vista instead of the vereda La Guajira

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Table des illustrations

Titre Annex 2: Location of the ETCRs including those with tourism projects.
Légende Annex 2 shows a map that presents the location of the different projects.La Plancha: click hereVidrí: click hereFilipinas: click hereAgua Bonita: click hereMiravalle: click hereTierra Grata: click hereLas Colinas: click hereCharras: click herePondores: click hereBuena Vista – La Guajira: click hereLa Fila – SPA: click hereLa Reforma – SPA: click hereEl Oso – SPA: click here
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Anne Marie Van Broeck, Monica Guasca et Dominique Vanneste, « Tourism Initiatives as a Lever for Reintegration of Former FARC Combatants in Colombia », Via [En ligne], 15 | 2019, mis en ligne le 22 novembre 2019, consulté le 04 décembre 2023. URL : ; DOI :

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Anne Marie Van Broeck

KU Leuven. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences. Geography & Tourism

Monica Guasca

KU Leuven. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences. Geography & Tourism

Dominique Vanneste

KU Leuven. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences. Geography & Tourism

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